Sarf – Level 2 – Class 16

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Notes >>>

بابُ التَّفعِل has many meanings, the one we mentioned are:

1) التَّكثِيرُ

2) التَّعدِيَة  

~~~~~

الأَوَّلُ التَّكثِيرُ (the first one is At-Taktheer)

هَذَا التَّكثِيرُ قَد يَكُونُ فِي ماذا؟ أو نَقول: في مَا يَكُون؟ : This Taktheer might be in where?  Or we say: where is it in (found)?

التَّكثِيرُ يَكُونُ فِي الفِعلِ أو الفَاعِلِ أو المَفعُولِ : The Taktheer is in the Verb (fi’l) or the Doer (Faa’il) or the Receiver (Maf’ool)

An example of showing increase in the act طَوَّفَ خَالِدٌ

  • قَد : might
  • كَيفَ تَقُولِينَ ذَلِكَ بِالعَرَبِيَّة؟ : How do you (f) say that in Arabic
  • يَكُونُ : he/it is
  • أَينَ : where
  • قَبلَ : before
  • قَد يَكُونُ : It also might be
  • هَل هَذَا : is this

The third meaning of this Chapter is:

النِّسبَة  ‘Referring المَفعُول to what الفِعل  is taken from

Example:

كَذَبَ : He lied/denied

كَفَرَ : He disbelieved/denied

فَسَقَ : He rebelled

كَذَبَ مَأخُوذٌ مِنَ الكَذِب

    • ‘كَذَبَ’ is taken from ‘الكَذِب

كَفَرَ مَأخُوذٌ مِنَ الكُفر

    • ‘كَفَرَ’ is taken from ‘الكُفر’

فَسَقَ مَأخُوذٌ مِنَ الفِسق

    • ‘فَسَقَ’ is taken from ‘الفِسق’

If you want to express the quality of Lying by attributing it to the مَفعُول , first we turn the verb كَذَبَ into the scale of كَذّبَ <—-  فَعَّلَ For you to be the doer you add ‘تُ’  تَاءُ الفَاعِل  (taa with a dhammah) كَذَّبَتُ and silence Laamul kalimah كَذَّبْتُ – now we add a مَفعُول for example Zayd, so we say:  

كَذَّبْتُ زَيدًا : I ascribed Zayd as a liar (to lying) / I deemed Zayd as a liar

    • كَذَّبَ جَعَلنَاهُ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَّلَ
        • Here the مَفعُول is Zayd – You want to refer Zayd to the thing you took the verb from , which is lying.
    • تَقُولُونَ : You (all) say
    • يَعنِي : It means
    • وَما الَّذِي يَعنِي : And what does it mean
    • فَسَقَ  does mean a sinner/left the obedience of Allaah
    • مَأخُوذٌ : taken
    • الكذب, الكُفر, الفِسق  are مَصَادِر
    • إذَا أرَدتَّ أن تَنسِبَ
    • إذَ كُنتَ أنتَ الفَاعِل

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 فَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كُذِّبَ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ جَاءُوا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُنِيرِ

Then if they reject you (O Muhammad ), so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Baiyinat (clear signs, proofs, evidences) and the Scripture and the Book of Enlightenment.[3:184]

      • كَذَّبُوكَ : They have ascribed you to lying
      • They (disbeliever) have discribed our beloved Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to lying
      • The passive of كَذَّبَ  is كُذِّبَ

  

فَعَّلَ , يُفَعِّلُ, تَفعِيلا

What do you notice about the mudaari of فَعَّلَ ? The dhammah on the ‘yaa’ (harful mudaara’ah)

Why does it have a dhammah and not a fathah? Because it is a four lettered verb – In Arabic we say: لأَنَّهُ فِعلٌ رُبَاعِيّ

And we said that in the Rubaa’iyy (four letter verb) the letter of the Mudaari’ takes a dhammah

      • حَرفُ المُضَارَعَةِ يَأخُذُ ضَمَّةً : The letter of the Mudaari’ takes a dhamma
      • فَهِمتُ : I understood (regardless the gender)
      • فَهِمنَا : We understood (regardless the gender)
      • If you are a speaker there is only one form of a group, whether a group mixture or only females you will always say, like  فَهِمنَا

 

Extra benefit

The successful way of understanding how to apply the principle is to focus on the definition, like said in the following principle: ‘الحُكمُ عَلَى الشَّيءِ فَرعٌ عَن تَصَوُّرِهِ, which means ‘Passing/judging a ruling on something is based/branched out from having a picture of it’ (having a picture of it, in the sense of knowing its meaning.) The means of knowing that is the précised definitions. If you apply this principle to yourself when learning, you will get rid of any confusion you have.

What makes people judge things wrongly?  Because they don’t what it exactly is.  What is the reason why people judge jihad wrongly? Because they don’t know what the correct definition of jihad is.

To give an example Ustaadh asked the students about the meaning of the word ‘عِيد’ and they gave descriptions, but those descriptions might be shared with other things. Some said, ‘reoccurs’ here as for an example we can say ‘heart reoccurs’, but do we want that? No –  Some said ‘repeating something’ here it is not the only thing that you repeat.

When you know the exact definition of something, only then will you understand it and know how to judge it properly.

Technical definitions of عيد : Returning to a place or a time with happiness or grief (and it takes out all the wrong possibilities mentioned.)- So you can only judge ‘عيد’ after knowing its definition. For example: The time of the beginning of the year, people go back to it they express a certain/special activity which shows happiness as a particular day.. did they take it as a عيد? Yes..                           What if someone came and said: No, that is not my intention to take it as a  عيد, I just like doing activities on this particular day of the year. The answer will be, this is a عيد whether you intended it or not as long you have returned to this particular time with a form of happiness or grief you have taken it as a عيد

See how the definitions help you to understand things and place them in their right positions.

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Sarf level 2 class 16

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