بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ
The Second type of verbs which belong to this Chapter:
(In other words: “This Chapter is Qiyaas in three types of verbs.” – Meaning that this Chapter is a principle to three types of verbs.)
Every verb having a Waaw as Laamul Kalimah
- قِياس : Is something which follows a Principle
- When ustaadh says: This chapter is a Qiyaas in the following types of verbs- know that he means: That those types of verbs which he mentions, whenever you find the same type of verb containing the same qualities it follows this chapter as a trend.
- We understand from this that whenever Laamul Kalimah is a Waaw it is from this Chapter and also whenever ‘Aynul Kalimah is a Waaw it is also from this Chapter.
When Laamul Kalimah is a Waaw
تَلاَ, يَتلُو (Talaa, Yatloo)
- He read
- It also mean ‘he recited’, but it is not excluded to reciting- But now it is mostly used for التِّلاَوَة , which is used for the Quraan
- Laamul kalimah is originally a waaw تَلَوَ <<< تَلاَ
رَجَا, يَرجُو (Rajaa, Yarjoo)
- He hoped
- As Allaah سبحان الله تعالى said:
قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا
Say (O Muhammad ): “I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your ilaah (God) is One ilaah (God i.e. Allah). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.” [18:110]
دَعَا, يَدعُو (Da’aa, Yad’oo)
- He called
سَمَا, يَسمُو (Samaa, Yasmoo)
- He rose and ascended
عَفَا, يَعفُو (‘Afaa, Ya’foo)
- He pardoned
غَلاَ, يَغلُو (Ghalaa, Yaghloo)
- He transgressed/exaggerated/exceeded the limit
فَسَا, يَقسُو (Qasaa, Yaqsoo)
- He/it hardened
- Notice in pronunciation: The letter Qaaf is a heavy letter and the Seen is a light letter- And one of the hardest things in Arabic is moving from light to heavy or from heavy to light, and this is something you have to get used to. (try to follow ustaadh’s exact pronunciation of the word)
- We have taken this verb in a past class – قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُم
قَفَا, يَقفُو (Qafaa, Yaqfoo)
- He followed
نَجَا, يَنجُو (Najaa, Yanjoo)
- He survived
صَفَا, يَصفُو (Safaa, Yasfoo)
- He/it cleared up
*Notice: Here the ending of the verbs have an Alif (the standing ‘ا’ and not the Alif which takes the form of a yaa ‘ى’) – And because of this we know that it originally is a Waaw and not a Yaa. However some words in the Quraan have a waaw as its original letter although it is written in the form of a yaa ‘ى’, that is because the Quranic writing has different rules than the usual writing – And that you will learn in shaa Allaah in عُلُومُ القُرآن when you learn رَسمُ المُصحَف (writing the mushaf), which is a knowledge by itself.
Like the students in Mauritania for example the minute they start reading quran since their very young age, they memorize the Quraan and when they finish they also learn the writing of the Quraan and the way they perfect that is by writing it on plates of wood (the full quraan and they erase it and write again and again). That is why it is hard to find a Mauritanian who makes mistakes in the Quraan, because this is their general way in learning the Quraan.
- Changing these kind of verbs to the Mudaari’ is easier than the one before (when the ‘ayn is a waaw)
Conjugation of تَلاَ in the Mudaari’
(Ustaadh gave the conjugation of the Mudaari’ first, because it is easier than the Maadh and he only mentioned the first form)
Reminder of a principle: When weighing words the extra letters that are gathered in the sentence سَأَلتُمُونِيهَا we bring them down as they are.
Don’t forget the Principles!
It doesn’t mean that when we reached to changing the verbs, that you forget the principles. The principles are very important and always go back to it and revise. Don’t let your visibility in learning these forms and applying the rules here fool you and in the account of you forgetting, but always be in contact with the principles
1st : We bring the letter of the Mudaari’ حَرفُ المُضَارَعَة , which in this case is a Hamzah أَ
2nd : We silence Faa-ul kalimah which is the ‘taa’ أتْ
3rd : We give ‘Aynul kalimah a dhammah أتْلُ
4th : Here Laamul kalimah is originally a Waaw – And here there is no reason for the Waaw to be turned into an Alif, so we keep it- أَتلُوُ which is on the scale of أفعُلُ
Now we notice that the waaw has a dhammah وُ and that is avoided due to heaviness (as explained before in أقوُلُ) – But the difference here is that the dhammah on the waaw in أَتلُوُ has no place on the laam (‘aynul kalimah), because it is already occupied with a harakah- So here we hide it أَتلُو
The dhammah on the waaw of أقوُلُ is not hidden, but moved over to the letter before it أقُولُ (the qaaf), and this dhammah which is moved to the Qaaf is pronounced. And the dhammah on the waaw of أتلُوُ is not moved to the letter before it, because the letter before it is not vacant it has a harakah, but we want to get rid of it, it is causing problems, it is heavy, so what we do is hide it and that means that you are still going to ‘drop it’ أَتلُو – You are not going to pronounce it, because pronouncing it causes heaviness. We use hide, because not putting it on the ‘waaw’ does not mean that we moved it somewhere else, it is there but hidden from pronunciation. According to the grammatical ruling it is there – and this we will learn in grammar in shaa Alaah.
(you can say drop it, by you meaning drop in pronunciation)
The harakaat which are placed at the end of words, are only placed there to express the grammatical role it place in the sentence. For example:
If you say ضَرَبَ زَيد أحمَد without the harakaat at the end, will you know who hit and who is the one who got hit? At the beginning you might say: Yes , because the doer ‘Zayd’ is mentioned directly after the verb and that means that he is the one doing the hitting. But it is not that way (not necessarily), because sometimes it is flipped around and the receiver is mentioned first before the doer, and this is for a benefit regarding balaaghah (beautification of speech) – like in the saying of Allaah سبحانه وتعالى :
إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّـهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ أَحَدًا
It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. [35:28]
- يَخشَى اللهَ …. العُلَمَاءُ
- يَخشَى : fears – And if you were to say that the doer is always mentioned after the verb, then here you would say that ‘Allaah fears the Scholars’ (Na’udhu bilLaah)
- The reason that the word اللهَ has a fathah and العُلَمَاءُ has a dhammah is to express the role each words plays in a sentence.
- Here the doer of this act (fearing) are العُلَمَاءُ (the scholars) –it has a dhammah- and the receiver (the One feared) is الله سبحانه وتعالى –it has a fathah-
- One harakah makes a difference in the meaning- If you read it like يَخشَى اللهُ …. العُلَمَاءَ – Here you will change the meaning from Monotheism to Not just Shirk.
*Principle: The doer originally gets a dhammah and the receiver originally gets a fathah.
- When you say a sentence that contains a verb, a doer and a receiver- The end of a doer originally gets a dhammah and the end of the receiver originally gets a fathah
- If you see a verb and after it you see a word (noun) having a fathah instead of a dhammah, then know that is the receiver and not the doer
Ustaadh asked the students and said:
If I say: ضَرَبَ زَيدٌ أحمَدَ
- Who did the hitting? Zayd
- How do you know? By the dhammah
- Is Ahmed the receiver or the doer? The receiver
- How do you know? By the fathah
What if I say: ضَرَبَ زَيدًا أحمَدُ
- Who is the doer of the hitting now? Ahmed
(that is what you learn in grammar)
The Quraan is revealed in the highest levels of Balaaghah, it is the most powerful in speech. From that perspective is that what made Allaah defy the disbelievers the Arabs to bring a Quraan like this.
~~~ End of Dars ~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah