Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 36

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

Conjugation of تَلاَ  in the Mudaari’

When Laamul kalimah is (originally) a waaw

أَفعُلُ                                                           أَتلُو

نَفعُلُ                                                           نَتلُو      

تَفعُلُ                                                           تَتلُو

تَفعُلِينَ                                                        تَتلِينَ

تَفعُلاَنِ                                                       تَتلُوَانِ

تَفعُلُونَ                                                       تَتلُونَ

تَفعُلنَ                                                         تَتلُونَ

يَفعُلُ                                                            يَتلُو

 تَفعُلُ                                                            تَتلُو

يَفعُلاَنِ                                                        يَتلُوَانِ

تَفعُلاَنِ                                                        تَتلُوَانِ

يَفعُلُونَ                                                        يَتلُونَ

يَفعُلنَ                                                          يَتلُونَ

 

(Try to memorize the common tables of the Maadh and the Mudaari’ by order just as if you memorized Al Faatihah- It will make things very easy)

 

أتلُو

  • As explained in the previous class, أَتلُو  was originally  أَتلُوُ – Here we hid the dhammah of the waaw (due to heaviness)
  • أتلُو : I read

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إِمْلَاقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Say (O Muhammad ): “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty – We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to Al-Fawahish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, and kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand.[6:151]

  • أَتلُو – أَتلُ Here the Waaw in this verse was dropped because of a grammatical reason

 

نَتلُو , تَتلُو

  • We do the same as we did in أتلُو – Hide the dhammah of the Waaw

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 نَتْلُو عَلَيْكَ مِن نَّبَإِ مُوسَىٰ وَفِرْعَوْنَ بِالْحَقِّ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

We recite to you some of the news of Musa (Moses) and Fir’aun (Pharaoh) in truth, for a people who believe (those who believe in this Qur’an, and in the Oneness of Allah). [28:3]

  • نَتلُو : we recite (read)

 

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَابٍ وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذًا لَّارْتَابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ

Neither did you (O Muhammad ) read any book before it (this Qur’an), nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted.[29:48]

  • تَتلُو : you (m) read (here it didn’t say recite, because reading is its original meaning)

 

تَتلِينَ

تَتلِينَ  was originally تَتلُوِينَ (tatluweena) sounding like تَفعُلِينَ’

  • تَتلِينَ : You (f) read
  • The first letter is the ‘taa’  of the Mudaari’  تَ
  • The second letter is the ‘taa’, which is Faa-ul kalimah تَفْ –  تَتْ
  • The third letter is ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘laam’ and it gets a dhammah according to its chapter تَفعُ – تَتلُ  
  • The fourth letter is Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘Waaw’ and it gets a kasrah just like the scale تَفعُلِ – تَتْلُوِ
  • The sixth letter is a ‘Yaa’, which is called يَاءُ المُؤَنَّثَةِ المُخَاطَبَةِ (Yaa-ul Mu-annathatil Mukhaatabah/ The Yaa of the spoken to female) تَفْعُلِي – تَتْلُوِي
  • The seventh letter is a ‘Noon’ with a fathah, which is a grammatical sign تَفعُلِينَ – تَتلُوِينَ

Now we notice that the waaw of  تَتْلُوِينَ  has a kasrah, and this is a heavy pronunciation ‘وِ’ (heavy letter + heavy harakah= heavy pronunciation) ‘Arabs seek lightness in speech’.

First we try if we can give this harakah (kasrah) to the letter before and see if it is vacant from any harakah  تَتْلُوِينَ – Here the letter before it has a harakah and is not vacant ‘لُ’, we can’t give it to the Laam, so we drop it (the reason why we drop it here and not hide it, is because when dropping it, it will not change the grammatical ruling), Now we have تَتْلُوينَ

تَتْلُوينَ (tatlooyna) has two sukoons in a row,  the first one is on the ‘waaw’ and the second one is on the ‘yaa’. We follow the steps we have learned of when two sukoons meet. Here we can drop the waaw, because of two things:

1-      The first saakin letter is one of hurooful ‘illah ‘و

2-      The condition of dropping it is there, by it having proof before it (a harakah that suits the letter we want to drop ‘و’ suiting the ‘dhammah’)

After dropping the waaw, we have تَتْلُينَ  (tatluyna)- The dhammah on the Laam doesn’t suit the ‘yaa’ that comes after it, but the kasrah does, so we remove the dhammah and put a kasrah  تَتلِينَ   

In short Drop the Waaw and give ‘Aynul kalimah a kasrah to suit the yaa after it.

 

تَتْلُوَانِ

  • تَتلُوَانِ : You both (m/f/mix) read
  • We change nothing at all we make it sound as تَفعُلاَنِ
  • Here we didn’t drop the waaw, because it has a fathah and a fathah isn’t a heavy harakah (no heavy speech)
  • تتلُوَانِ : You both read
  • The logical order is to first Speak for yourself (Al-Mutakallim) then you Speak To someone (Al- Mukhaatab), then you Speak About someone (Al-Ghaa-ib)

 

تَتْلُونَ

تَتْلُونَ  was originally  تَتْلُوُونَ (tatluwuoona) sounding like تَقعُلُونَ

  • تَتلُونَ : You all (m/mix) read
  • If you look to the original form you see that it has two waaw’s –  *The first Waaw is Laamul Kalimah and the second Waaw is Waawul Jamaa’ah (Jam’).
  • The Noon expresses the grammatical state 

Here that what contradicts with the Arabic principle is heaviness caused by the dhammah on the Waaw. Here we can’t give this harakah to the letter before it, because it is occupied with a harakah, therefore we drop it. تَتْلُوونَ  (Tatloooona)

تَتلُوونَ  – Here we have two sukoons in a row- We see that the first saakin letter (which is laamul kalimah) is one of hurooful ‘illah (a waaw) now we look if the letter before it has proof of the waaw-  It does have a dhammah ‘لُ’  and this is proof of the waaw, so the conditions met now we can drop the waaw تَتْلُوونَ – و “لام الكلمة” = تَتْلُونَ   – NOTICE: The waaw we dropped is LAAMUL KALIMAH and that Waaw which stayed is  Waawul Jamaa’ah تَتْلُونَ

 

تَتْلُونَ

  • تَتلُونَ : You all (f) read
  • The first letter is the ‘taa’  of the Mudaari’
  • The second letter is the ‘taa’, which is Faa-ul kalimah تَفْ –  تَتْ
  • The third letter is ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘laam’ and it gets a dhammah according to its chapter تَفعُ – تَتلُ  
  • The fourth letter is Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘Waaw’ and  it is silenced تَفعُلْ – تَتْلُوْ
  • The sixth letter is a ‘Noon’, which is نُونُ الإنَاثَة  (Noonul inaathah/ Noon of femininity) تَفْعُلْنَ – تَتْلُونَ 

We didn’t do any changes, and therefore this ‘و’ in تَتلُونَ   is Laamul kalimah  not Waawul Jamaa’ah

They appear the same, because the letters and the harakaat are the same تَفعُلُونَ – تَتلُونَ , تَفعُلنَ – تَتلُونَ   -It is identical ONLY IN PICTURE, but the two waaw’s are not the same (the first waaw is waawul jamaa’ah and the second waaw is laamul kalimah)

 

يَتلُو, تَتلُو

  • يَتلُو : He reads
  • تَتلُو : She reads
  • We do the same as we did in  أتلُو – نَتلُو – تَتلُو
  • تَتلُو here means: she readsهِيَ تَتلُو

 

يَتلُوَانِ , تَتلُوَانِ

  • يَتلُوَانِ : They both (m/mix) read
  • تَتلُوَانِ : They both (f) read
  • We do the same as we did in  تَتلُوَانِ  – the only different with يَتلُوَانِ  is the ‘taa’ and ‘yaa’ (the letters of the Mudaari’)

يَتلُونَ

  • يَتلُونَ : They all (m/mix) read
  • We do the same as we did in تَفعُلُونَ – تَتلُونَ the only different is the ‘taa’ and the ‘yaa’
  • The waaw here is Waawul Jamaa’ah

 

يَتلُونَ

  • يَتلُونَ : They all (f) read
  • We do the same as we did in تَتلُونَ  – تَقعُلنَ here also the only different is the ‘yaa’ and ‘taa’
  • The waaw here is Laamul Kalimah

(extra: Aliful Faariqah that comes after Waawul Jamaa’ah only comes in the Mudaari’ to make up for the dropped Noon, due to a grammatical state – And the noon is the default state ‘Raf’’

Only in emergencies you will find a dhammah on the waaw, like: دَعَوُا اللهَ )

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Tasreeful 'izziy 36-1

2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 36

  1. ummata January 12, 2013 at 4:03 pm Reply

    assalamu aliekum wr wb i’m connected to the wiziq classes Alhamdu lellah my question
    do you have a sarf booklet to follow up and that i can download to be able to read at home jasaku Allahu khayran

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