Sarf – Level 2 – Class 18

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

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TOPIC of the LESSON: The last chapter of ar-rubaa`iyy which is ath-thulaathiyy mazeed biharfin waahid.

الباب الثالث –  باب المفاعلة: فَاعَلَ – يُفَاعِلُ – مُفَاعَلَةً

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Review >>>

Our teacher brought the research made by one of the students, explaining that this was the correct method of a student of knowledge for researching a topic especially when it is to do with translating technical terms. It was concerning the precise translation for the meaning of اختصار حكاية المركب And in the end it was decided that the best translation the teacher and students decided upon is: “Summarizing  complex phrase.”

  فَعَّلَ  also comes having the same meaning as the mujarrad with no difference.  And if there was no difference in meaning,  then the benefit of doubling this letter  (because there has to be a benefit), is emphasizing and stressing.

New Material >>>

The first and most common meaning (الغالب) we will take for فَاعَلَ isالمشاركة which literally means “participating.”

 The precise technical meaning is: نِسْبَةُ الْفِعْلِ إِلَى الْفَاعِلِ صَرَاحَةٌ, وَ إِلَى الْمَفْعُولِ ضِمْناً meaning: “The referring of the verb (the act) to the doer directly and to the receiver inclusively.”

  • An-Nisbah means  the referring
  • Saraahah means directly
  • Dhimnaa means inclusively

Example

A word which is brought on this chapter is:  قَاتَلَ as in قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً

  • What is the mujarrad of qaatala?   It is qatala.
  • What does qatala mean?  it means “he killed.”
  • What does qaatala mean?  It means Fighting for the cause of killing.
  • Here we referred the act to the killer:  Zaydun ( Zaydun is the doer) –  It is done directly, according to the grammaticial order of this sentence it is clear that the verb was referred to Zayd.  Zayd is the faa`il  –  the verb was directly referred to him, but it also refers the act to the receiver inclusively (in meaning).
  •   Just as this act was done from Zayd to Amr  it was also done from `Amr to Zayd.
  • `Amr participated.
  •  Referring this act to Zayd by this form includes referring it to `Amr as well

قَتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً means Zayd killed `Amr  but   قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً means Zayd fought with `Amr (to the death).  This form also gives the meaning of the receiver participating in the act of the doer.  so adding the alif (between the faa and laam) and you will get the meaning of the receiver participating in the act.

Another example

the verb  شَتَمَ   means cursed/cussed.  If we said: شَتَمَ زَيْدٌ خَالداً it means Zayd cursed Khaalid, it doesnt mean that Khaalid cursed back –  but if we said  شَاتَمَ زَيْدٌ خَالداً  then this would mean that Zayd and Khaalid cursed one another.

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As-Sameen Al-Halabi meantions the meanings of this scale in his book Ad-Dur Al-Masuun saying that faa’ala has five meanings, he mentions this meaning and also brings the example:  ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً  (Zayd hit Amr).   When dharaba is brought on this scale we have:  ضَاَرَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً meaning, Zayd and Amr exchanged blows.

2nd meaning of this scale >>>

The second meaning is:  مُوافَقَة المُجرَّد  – matching the mujarrad ( the three letter verb) in it’s meaning (with no difference).

Example

 جَاوَزْتُ زَيْدًا   means:  I crossed/passed Zaydun

  • From the mujarrad   جاز – يجوز (Jaaza/Yajuzzu) meaning: passed by
  • Fil-Asli Juztu – originally the three letter is Juztu (like Qultu, Zurtu etc.)
  • there is no difference in meaning: Jaawaztu is the same meaning as Juztu  (both meaning, ” I passed by…”)
  • Since there is no difference in the meaning then the benefit of this form is that it is for emphasizing.

The third meaning >>>

Third meaning of this form is   الإغناء عن المجرد

  •  This meaning is also in af’ala as we studied.  (it is in fa“ala as well though the teacher didnt mention that)
  • meaning this form does not go back to an original mujarrad –  three lettter verb of its  meaning that it goes back to.

Example:

The verb saafara has its own meaning which the three letter verb does not share. سَافَرْتُ means, “I travelled.” But the three letter verb سَفَرَ means, “appeared”

Another example:

: عاقبت ابني على ترك الصلاة I punished my son for leaving the prayer. Not meaning left completely but meaning a certain prayer – example the dhuhr prayer. The three letter verb عقب means, “came after or followed. as in; عقبه He followed him.

Another example:

قَاسيتُ means “I suffered” but the mujarrad does not have that same meaning.

Some scholars mentioned two other meanings and there are some differences that need to be confirmed and a bit of research because it doesn’t seem to be giving that meaning.  One of the meanings for example that they mentioned is التكثير (increasing) which is the same meaning that fa“ala gives commonly and the examples they gave by that are the words:

ضاعَفَ which means multiplied.
ضاعَفَ كَاثَرَ which means increased.

But Ustaadh questions this because even As-Sameen Al-Halabi did not mention this meaning from among the five meanings he mentioned in his tafseer. But are these meanings understood from the form or from the very meaning of the word? It is from the very meaning of the word itself. The increase here (at taktheer) was understood from the very meaning of the word and not the form itself. this is why Ustaadh hesitated since this was written by some and not others and he is not convinced that it gives this meaning especially after seeing that As-Sameen Al Halabi did not mention it in the first pace. So Ustaadh does not count this as the fourth meaning …

The class time has ended and Inshaa’Allaah Ustaadh will complete this topic in the nect class.

والله تعالى أعلم … الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

transcribed by Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

Screen Shot >>>

S2 18.1S2 18.2

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