Establishi​ng the Principles – P. of Understand​ing – Book 1 – Class 13

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

SUMMARIZED NOTES >>>

We have finished speaking about Fardhil A’yn and Fardhil Kifaayah. We moved onto speaking about the issues regarding and concerning the five rulings (اَلخَمسَة اَلأَحْكَام).

The author says:

وَ هَذِهِ الْأَحْكَامُ الْخَمْسَةُ تَتَفَاوَتُ تَفَاوُتاً كَثِيراً, بِحَسْبِ حَالِهَا وَ مَرَاتِبِهَا, وَ آثَارِهَا

 “And those five rulings vary very much, according to its condition (state) and its levels and its outcomes (fruits).”

  • The five rulings here are Al Waajib, Masnoon, Makrooh, Haraam and Mubah.
  •   (تَفَاوُتاً كَثِيراً) This means that they are all not equal and that they vary much.
  • They vary from three perspectives:
    1. Condition (state/status) – حَالِهَا
    2. Its levels مَرَاتِبِهَا
    3. Its outcomes (fruits) آثَارِهَا
  • Here we want to know two things:
    1. We want to take an example to show how those rulings vary –
    2. What is the benefit of knowing that those rulings vary in Islamic legislation?

COMMANDMENTS VARY >>>

The command varies from how much reward one gets by doing it, meaning that when carrying out some commandments the reward is higher than the reward when carrying the other commandments. We mean the things that are ordered in general.

Example

Worshipping Allah alone is the highest reward and As-Salah is higher than other commandments.  The reward of monotheism (worshipping Allah alone), is it the same as the reward of As-salah?  No, salah is the great pillar of Islam but although it is great and has a great reward out of it, it isn’t as great as the order to worship Allah alone and disassociate anything in worship with Him because the reward to monotheism is far greater.

Example

Question: The person who prays, him praying with Ikhlaas (sincerity), is it the same as him praying without it?

Answer: No, and it could reach to a point where he doesn’t get anything out of his salah and it could also reach to a point where he could sometimes earn sins because he did it to be praised for doing it by the people.

Different commandments vary, not all are of the same significance, and there are commandments which are more significant than the others. 

Example from the Sunnah

The Prophet (sallallaaahu a’layhi wasallam) said: “The first thing that the individual is recompensed for is As-Salah, if the prayer was upright the rest of his deeds be.”  [At-Tabaraanee in Al-Mu’jam Al-Awsat no. 1929; Ad-Diyaa’ Fee Al-Mukhtaar 2/209, from the Hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik, Al-Albaanee graded it as Saheeh in As-Silsilah As-Saheehah no. 1358 and in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ no. 2573]

We understand from the hadeeth that this commandment specifically (As-Salah) is greater than other commandments (example: sawm, zakah..Etc).

Example

Is fasting like the order to dress up nicely to go to the masjid? Fasting is far greater than the other.

*The above examples are what is meant by: “Those commands vary…”

To clarify the above point Ustaad said that the things commanded are not of one level and things forbidden are also not of one level and the same goes with the things preferred and disliked.

To clarify it further he gave us an example – he asked if Al-Witr is at the same level of the two rakhahs after Maghrib, then he pointed out the issue that both of them share the same ruling and are preferred acts but because the reward of Al-Witr is greater due to the different ahadeeth pointing out and clarifying the significance of salathul Witr we then understand that it is greater than other things which are preferred like it.

*So the levels of preferences differ even among the commandments that share the same rulings

 

Example for the Impermissible

Question: Is polytheism like committing Ribah?

Answer: No, but both are forbidden and polytheism is greater in punishment compared to Ribah and it also takes you out of the fold of Islam whereas Ribah doesn’t.

Question: Is Ribah on the same level as killing an innocent soul without a given right?

Answer: No.

Allah says emphasizing the significance of this crime:

مَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him. (4:93)

EXAMPLE TO THE CONDITIONS حَالِهَا >>>

—- According to the condition of this killing —-

This speaks specifically about how it happened and when it happened, if it happened intentionally if it happened unintentionally.  Allah says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا  فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

It is not for a believer to kill a believer except (that it be) by mistake, and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, (it is ordained that) he must set free a believing slave and a compensation (blood money, i.e. Diya) be given to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer; the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed), and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, compensation (blood money – Diya) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed. And whoso finds this (the penance of freeing a slave) beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in order to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. (4:92)

Example to the condition

Question: Is praying alone like praying in front of people?

Answer: No, because when you pray alone you are further away from evil causes (showing off).

EXAMPLES TO THE LEVELS مَرَاتِبِهَا >>>

*Each commandment has different levels; some commandments in this level are more upon you in any other level.

 

There are different levels to enjoining Ma’roof (good) and forbidden Munkar (evil).

Question: when you forbid Munkar, is it all in one level?

Answer: No, the prophet (sallahu a’layhi wassalam) divided forbidding evil into 3. He said: “Whoever sees something evil should change it with his hand. If he cannot, then with his tongue; and if he cannot do even that, then in his heart. That is the weakest degree of faith.”

EXAMPLE TO THE OUTCOMES/FRUITS آثَارِهَا >>>

We can understand from that it is from the perspective or the aspect of the recompense, this means that it is the outcome and fruit of committing the sin or the outcomes of carrying out the commandment.

The outcomes are not the same, so the outcome of prayer is not like taking the best cloths to the mosque because it is of a greater reward than taking your clothes to the masjid.

 In opposition To the forbidden acts, the outcome of Az-zinah is not as the outcomes of Al-Gheeybah (backbiting).

*the commandments vary according to its outcomes either from the aspect of punishment or from the aspect of rewards.

The author then starts speaking generally about all the five rulings.

Here according to what the author instructed, those rulings go back to four types:

  • What was of a pure advantage
    • It is has all advantage and has no disadvantage in it.
    • (Example: worshipping Allah alone, justice, sincerity, Ihsaan, being good to parents, keeping family ties, etc)

Sometimes a certain thing has both advantages and disadvantages (example – internet)

  • What was of a greater advantage in doing
    •  It has some advantages but when compared with its disadvantage it is as if the disadvantage was never there.
    • (Example: fighting for the cause of Allah, going to pray in the masjid at fajr, etc)  Isn’t fighting for the cause of Allah exposing yourself to be killed? Yes, so there are both advantages and disadvantages, the advantage is to success the word of Allah and successing His religion and strengthening this deen. So when the advantage is compared with the disadvantage we notice that the disadvantage is not looked at due to its weak effect and the advantage overweighs it.

Allah says:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ

أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ

Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful. (49:15)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ

O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter. (9:38)

~End of class~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Zaiba binth Shuraiz Jawward Hashim

SCREEN SHOTS >>>

UF 13.1

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