Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 37

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

Conjugation of تَلاَ  in the Maadhiy

When Laamul kalimah is (originally) a waaw

فَعَلتُ                                                          تَلَوتُ

فَعَلنَا                                                           تَلَونَا      

فَعَلتَ                                                          تَلَوتَ

فَعَلتِ                                                          تَلَوتِ

فَعَلتُمَا                                                        تَلَوتُما

فَعَلتُم                                                          تَلَوتُم 

فَعَلتُنَّ                                                         تَلَوتُنَّ

فَعَلَ                                                              تَلاَ

فَعَلَتْ                                                            تَلَتْ

فَعَلاَ                                                             تَلَوَا

فَعَلَتَا                                                          تَلَوَتَا

فَعَلُوا                                                            تَلَوا

فَعَلنَ                                                           تَلَونَ

*Reminder:

Principle 1: Whenever we attached a Dhameeru Raf which has a harakahضَمِيرُ رفع مُتَحَرِّكto a Maadh we silence Laamul Kalimah

Principle 2: If the Waaw or the Yaa had a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah, we turn the Waaw or the Yaa into an Alif

 

تَلَوتُ

1st : We bring Faa-ul Kalimah, which is the ‘taa’  and give it a fathah فَ – تَ

2nd : We bring ‘Aynul Kalimah, which is the ‘laam’ and also give it a fathah فَعَ – تَلَ

3rd : We bring Laamul Kalimah, which is originally a ‘Waaw’, so we put a Waaw and silence it (give it a sukoon, just like the scale)- فَعَلْ – تَلَوْ

  • Here we see if we can turn the Waaw into an Alif-  The ‘waaw’ doesn’t have a harakah this means that the first condition of turning it into a Alif is not there, even though the letter before it has a fathah, which is the second condition, but to apply this principle both conditions should be present.. So here we don’t turn the Waaw into an Alif – it stays as it is تَلَوْ

4th :  We attach ‘تُ’ (the taa of the faa’il) فَعَلْتُ – تَلَوْتُ

  • ‘تُ’Also called ضَمِيرُ رفع مُتَحَرِّك

تَلَوْتُ

  • I read/ recited

Now you are going to do the same in the coming six conjugations ‘فَعَلْنَا, فَعَلْتَ, فَعَلتِ, فَعَلْتُمَا, فَعَلْتُم, فَعَلْتُنَّ ’ , because since Laamul Kalimah is silenced it will remain as a ‘waaw’ (it will not be turned into an Alif) , And the only thing that will change is whatever comes after Laamul Kalimah, and change it according to its appropriate Dhameer – تَلَونَا, تَلَوْتَ, تَلَوتِ, تَلَوتُمَا, تَلَوْتُم, تَلَوْتُنَّ

تَلَوْنَا

  • We read/recited

تَلَوْتَ

  • You (m) read/recited

تَلَوْتِ

  • You (f) read/recited

تَلَوْتُمَا

  • You both (m or mix) read/recited

تَلَوْتُم

  • You all (m or mix) read/recited

تَلَوْتُنَّ

  • You all (f) read/recited

 

تَلاَ

تَلاَ   was originally تَلَوَ –  Here the ‘waaw’  has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah and this goes according to the principle, so we turn the ‘waaw’ into an ‘alif’  –  تَلَوَ —> تَلاَ

تَلاَ 

  • He read/recited

 

تَلَتْ

تَلَتْ was originally تَلَوَتْ

1st : We bring Faa-ul Kalimah, which is the ‘taa’  and give it a fathah فَ – تَ

2nd : We bring ‘Aynul Kalimah, which is the ‘laam’ and also give it a fathah فَعَ – تَلَ

3rd : We bring Laamul Kalimah, which is originally a ‘Waaw’, so we put a Waaw and give it a fathah (just like the scale) فَعَلَ – تَلَوَ

4th : We attach تَاءُ التَّأنِيثِ السَّاكِنَة – ‘تْ’ (Taa-ut Ta-neethis Saakinah) to the verb فَعَلَتْ – تَلَوَتْ

  • Now we can apply the principle of changing the waaw into an alif in  تَلَوَتْ , because the waaw is mutaharrik (has a harakah), and the letter before it has a fathah, so we change the waaw into an Alif تَلَوَتْ —> تَلاَتْ

5th : تَلاَتْ , here we have two sukoons in a row and that is avoided. We can drop the first saakin letter ‘the alif’, because the conditions of dropping it is present. The first saakin letter is an Alif (one of hurooful ‘illah) , and the letter before it has proof of the Alif (a fathah)-  تَلاَتْ —> تَلَتْ

تَلَتْ

  • she read/recited

 

تَلَوَا

In تَلَوَا we can apply the principle of changing the waaw into an alif, because the waaw is mutaharrik and the letter before it has a fathah  تَلَوَا —-> تَلاَا  – Now two sukoons meet and we can drop the first saakin letter ‘Alif’, because it is one of hurooful ‘illah and it has proof before it (a harakah (fathah) that suits the Alif) تَلَاا – ا = تَلاَ   – And if we do that two forms will be hard to distinguish between هُوَ فَعَلَ ‘ – تَلاَ  and this one which is هُمَا فَعَلَا ‘ – تَلاَ (they became exactly the same) – Here the scholars said because of that, the waaw was not turned into an Alif, rather it remains as it is – And this is considered an exception

An example from the Quraan (same type of verb دَعَا)

الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا لِيَسْكُنَ إِلَيْهَا فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّاهَا حَمَلَتْ حَمْلًا خَفِيفًا فَمَرَّتْ بِهِ فَلَمَّا أَثْقَلَت دَّعَوَا اللَّـهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَئِنْ آتَيْتَنَا صَالِحًا لَّنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ

It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. When he had sexual relation with her, she became pregnant and she carried it about lightly. Then when it became heavy, they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying): “If You give us a Salih (good in every aspect) child, we shall indeed be among the grateful.” [7:189]

  • دَعَوَا  – here you see it written with the waaw and it has not been dropped neither has it been turned into an Alif.

تَلَوَا

  • they both (m or mix) read/recited

 

تَلَوَتَا

  • Here it is the same as in تَلَوَا  , we don’t drop or turn the waaw into an Alif -, because adding تَاء التَّأنيث السَّاكِنَة  is an exception (like we said in the first classes)
  •   ‘الأصلُ التَّذكِير’ – In speech by default we use the Masculine, so all principles will follow the Masculine

تَلَوَتَا

  • they both (f) read/recite

تَلَوا

1st : We bring Faa-ul Kalimah, which is the ‘taa’  and give it a fathah فَ – تَ

2nd : We bring ‘Aynul Kalimah, which is the ‘laam’ and also give it a fathah فَعَ – تَلَ

3rd : We bring Laamul Kalimah, which is originally a ‘Waaw’, so we put a Waaw and give it a dhammah (just like the scale) فَعَلُ – تَلَوُ

4th : We attach وَاوُ الجَمَاعَة  (Waaw of the group) to the verb فَعَلُو – تَلَوُو  and add أَلِفُ الفَارِقَة (Aliful faariqah) فَعَلُوا – تَلَوُوا

5th : تَلَوُوا , here we can turn the waaw into an alif, because the waaw is mutaharrik and the letter before it has a fathah. تَلَوُوا —-> تَلَاوا

6th : تَلَاوا  here there is a problem, two sukoons in a row and that is avoided. We can drop the first saakin letter ‘the alif’, because the conditions of dropping it is present. The first saakin letter is an Alif (one of hurooful ‘illah) , and the letter before it has proof of the Alif (a fathah)-  تَلاَوا —> تَلَوا

تَلَوا

  • they (m or mix) read/recited

 

تَلَونَ

  • Here we do the same as the first two groups (mutakallim and mukhaatab), because laamul kalimah is silenced- So we don’t turn the waaw in to an alif neither do we drop it.

تَلَونَ 

  • they (f) read/recited

And this is how to do it with every verb which is the same (whenever you have a three letter verb and Laamul kalimah as a waaw (originally) you do the same)

The verbs we got so far from Chapter One are

For the Samaa’:

نَصَرَ, عَبَدَ, رَزَقَ, تَرَكَ, خَلَقَ

  • These are Laazim

خَرَجَ, كَفَرَ, شَعَرَ, سَجَدَ, نَظَرَ

  • These are Muta’addin

For the Qiyaas:

When ‘Aynul kalimah is a Waaw

قَالَ, عَاذَ, كَانَ, قَامَ, تَابَ, صَامَ, مَاتَ, فَازَ, زَارَ, ذَاقَ

When Laamul kalimah is a Waaw

تَلاَ, رَجَا, دَعَا, سَمَا, عَفَا, غَلاَ, قَسَا, قَفَا, صَفَا

 

(Homework: Give the rest of the conjugation that belong to the type of  ‘when Laamul kalimah is a waaw’ in the Maadhiy and the Mudaari’)

~~~

The third type of verbs which the firs Chapter is a principle to is (Qiyaas):

Every Verb which is called   مُضَعَّف (muda’’af)  and it is مُتَعَدٍّ (muta’addin)

This type is called مُضَعَّف, because this word linguistically means: Multiplied

The reason it was given this name which has the meaning of Multiplying is because both the ‘Ayn and the Laam are identical.

Vocabulary of Chapter one Qiyaas:

When it is called  مُضَعَّف and it is مُتَعَدٍّ

(for now ustaadh gave us only the letters without the principles being applied on them (their original form’just like قَوَلَ, دَعَوَ) and in the next class we will work on it in shaa Allaah)

 

سَبَبَ

  • He cursed

صَبَبَ

  • He poured

حَثَثَ

  • He urged

حَجَجَ

  • He performed Hajj
  • Linguistically: Headed (intentionally) towards a certain destination

رَدَدَ

  • He rejected/returned back

مَدَدَ

  • He stretched (something else)

سَرَرَ

  • He pleased

ضَرَرَ

  • He harmed

خَصَصَ

  • He specified

قَصَصَ

  • He told/ followed

دَلَلَ

  • He guided

ذَمَمَ

  • He dispraised

عَمَمَ

  • He included

سَنَنَ

  • He chosen a way/ took a way

ظَنَنَ

  • He thought/ reckoned

(don’t forget all of these verbs are Muta’addin)

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 37-1Tasreeful 'izziyy 37-2

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