Sarf – Level 2 – Class 19

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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  • The first meaning to بابُ المُفَاعَلَة is المُشَارَكة, and it is ‘Referring the act of the verb to the doer directly and to the receiver indirectly’ – And according to this meaning it means ‘Participating’
  • The other two meanings are: مُوَافَقَةُ المُجَرَّد   and الإغنَاءُ عَنِ المُجَرَّدِ

We will suffice in shaa Allaah with just those three

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For the first type of verbs, which is  ثُلاَثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ بِحَرفٍ وَاحد – it has three Chapters  – أفعَلَ, فَعَّلَ, فَاعَلَ

For the second type of verbs, which is ثُلاَثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ بحَرفَين – it has five Chapters – انفَعَلَ , افتَعَلَ, افعَلَّ, تَفَعَّلَ, تَفَاعَلَ

For the third type of verbs, which is ثُلاثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ بِثَلاَثَةِ أَحرُف – it has four Chapters – استَفعَلَ, اِفعَالَّ, افعَوعَلَ, افعَوَّلَ  (but ustaadh will only give us one, in shaa Allaah)

And as for the رُبَاعِيّ , ustaadh is going to give us only one and he might give us رُبَاعِيّ مَزِيدُ بِحَرفٍ وَاحد

The total numbers of chapters which ustaadh is going to give us beside what we already have taken are 8.

~~~

Regarding the conjugations of the مَصَادِر they don’t need much work, it is what you have heard, but in some cases where there is a حَرفُ عِلَّة (in the middle (‘Aynul kalimah) and at the end (Laamul kalimah)) they do need some work.

The مَصدَر is what you have heard after each Chapter,

so the مَصدَر of أَفعَلَ is إِفعَالا , like:

أكرَمَ, يُكرِمُ, إكرَما

أَجلَسَ, يُجلِسُ , إِجلاَسا

أَحسَنَ, يُحسِنُ, إِحسَانا

And the مَصدَرof فَعَّل  is تَفعِيلا , like:

كَلَّمَ, يُكَلِّمُ, تَكلِيما

قَدَّرَ, يُقَدِّرُ, تَقدِيرا

قَتَّلَ, يُقَتِّلُ, تَقتِيلا

And the مَصدَرof فَاعَل  is مُفَاعَلَةً , like:

قَاتَلَ, يُقَاتِلُ, مُقَاتَلَةً

ضَارَبَ, يُضَارِبُ, مُضَارَبَةً

شَارَكَ, يُشَارِكُ, مُشَارَكَةً

مَرَّ بِنَا ثَلاَتَةُ أبوَاب (Three chapters have passed us (passed with us))

البَابُ الأوَّل: أَفعَلَ, يُفعِلُو إِفعَالا

البَابُ الثَّانِي: فَعَّلَ, يُفَعِّلُ, تَفعِيلا

البَابُ الثَّالِث: فَاعَلَ, يُفَاعِلُ, مُفَاعَلَةً

  • مَرَّ : to pass
  • Chapter three has also has as its Masdar,  فِعَالا and فِيعَالا , but they are not a Qiyaas, therefore   مُفَاعَلَةً is the only Qiyaas

بابُ الإفعَال (Chapter one), has two issues of how to deal with the مَصدَر

  • Reminder: يُفعِلُ was originally يُؤَفعِلُ – so يُكرِمُ was originally يُؤَكرِمُ  and يُجْلِسُ was originally يُؤَجلِسُ , because when you turn a مَاض to a مُضَارِع , you add one of the letters of the مُضَارِع to it ‘أ, ن, ي, ت’ –   If we add a letter of the مُضَارِع it would be ي + أفعل = يُؤَفعِلُ . Here the Qiyaas was abandoned and not followed, because of what we explained in past class

~~~

Reminder:

When is the verb considered صَحِيح ?

  • When it is free from حُرُوفُ عِلَّة

When is it called  مُعتَلّ ?

  • When it contains حُرُوفُ عِلَّة

That which contains حُرُوفُ عِلَّة  how many types does it have?

  • It has five types, which are:

مِثَال, أَجوَف, نَاقِص, لَفِيفٌ مَفرُوق, لَفِيفٌ مَقرُون

  • فَنقُول: المُعتَلُّ إمَّا أن يَكونَ مِثالا أو إمَّا أن يَكُونَ أَجوَفا وَإمَّا أن يَكُونَ نَاقِصا

If a  حَرفُ عِلَّة was in the beginning it is called: مِثَال

And if it was in the middle it is called: أجوَف

And if it was at the end it is called:   نَاقِص

And the verb which contains two of حُرُوفُ عِلَّة it is either لَفِيفٌ مَفرُوق (which is separated) or لَفِيفٌ مَقرُون (which is in a row)

~~~

The مَصدَر of the first Chapter:

The first issue:

If it was an أجوَف

As for example:

If قَامَ was changed to أفعَلَ, how would it change?

As to what is apparent it would change to أَقوَمَ

1st : We add the hamzah أ

2nd : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the Qaaf and give it a sukoon أَفْ – أقْ

3rd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is originally the Waaw and give it a fathah أفْعَ – أَقْوَ

4th : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the Meem and give it a fathah أَفعَلَ – أَقوَمَ

*There is a PRINCIPLE that says: If ‘Aynul kalimah was a ي  or a و (having a harakah), and it was preceeded by a Saakin it is then mandatory to move the harakah to it

5th : We give the harakah of the waaw to the ‘vacant’ letter before it, which is the Qaaf   أَقْوَمَ —> أَقَوْمَ

6th : We turn the Waaw into an Alif to suit the fathah which is on the Qaaf   أَقَومَ—> أَقَامَ

How did we get the Masdar إِقَامَةً ?

It originally should be إِقوَامٌ , here we give the harakah (fathah) of the waaw to the Qaaf (just like we did with the Maadhee) إِقْوَام —> إِقَوْام.

We turn the waaw into an Alif to suit the fathah إقَوام —> إِقَاام

Now we have two sukoons in a row إِقَاام, here there is a principle that necessitates that we drop the first Alif (which is ‘Aynul kalimah)   إِقَاام – ا = إِقَام

To make up for the dropping of this original letter, they made up for it by adding a ‘ ة’ at the end

إِقَام + ة = إقَامَةً

This is what we are going to do with every verb which has حَرفُ عِلَّة in its ‘’Ayn

  • مُعتَلُّ العَين , means that its ‘Ayn is Mu’tall (which makes it Ajwaf)
  • إذَا كَانَتْ مُعتَلُّ العَين – If it was Mu’tallul ‘Ayn
  • The reason why the Masdar has been given a fathah, is because of its grammatical position (this will be explained in Nahw in shaa Allaah)
  • The alif in the masdar of إفعَالا , was not turned from a waaw or a yaa into an Alif
  • إفعَالا of قَامَ is originally إِقْوَام and of دَامَ it is إِدوَام (the waaw is the ‘ayn) – as you can see the alif in إفعال (which is between the ‘ayn and the laam) is not turned into a waaw
  • The Masdar of أدَامَ is going to be   إِدَامَةً
  • When we drop a letter which is considered a main letter to build the form, the Arabs tend to make up for it, by adding another letter- As for example: زِنَة is actually وَزن and here the و was made up for by the adding of the ة at the end زِنَة

Second issue:

If it was نَاقِص

As for example:

رَضِيَ – Here the ي wasn’t turned into an Alif because the dhaad doesn’t have  a fathah, but it has a kasrah.

If رَضِيَ was changed to أفعَلَ, how would it change?

1st : We add the hamzah أ

2nd : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the Raa and give it a sukoon أَفْ – أَرْ

3rd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the Dhaad and give it a fathah أفْعَ – أَرْضَ

4th : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is originally the Waaw and give it a fathah أَفعَلَ – أَرْضَوَ

Here it would appear to you that the yaa should be the original letter, but it is not it is the waaw – Because الرِّضا is taken from الرِّضوَان – So the masdar here has a Waaw…

رَضِيَ was originally رَضِوَ – And there is a *PRINCIPLE that says: If the و came on the edge (at the end), after a kasrah it is turned into a ي

In Arabic: إِذَا تَطَرَّفَتِ الوَاوُ بَعدَ كَسرٍ قُلِبَتْ يَاءً

And that is why رَضِوَ changed into رَضِيَ (this yaa isn’t original)

  • Leave this principle general

5th : Now in أَرضَوَ , we can apply the principle of changing this و  in to an Alif (because the waaw has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah) أَرضَوَ —> أرضَا

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

sarf level 2- 19-1sarf level 2- 19-2

5 thoughts on “Sarf – Level 2 – Class 19

  1. Aisha-Shakurah Bint Maryam Smith January 16, 2013 at 11:44 am Reply

    as salaamu alaykum sis my name is aisha bint maryam inshallah i would love to benefit from ustaadh lectures but i am so far behind. i was a student once but had to go back to work and i miss his lessons all the time. i tried to access them on your website but it says that i do not have permission. i would love tostart from the four fundamental principles and work my way up but need access to view these classes. please allow me permission to veiw the lessons. as im eager to learn what is wajib. barakallah feeki. sis im also new to the correct way of learning islam so im just looking to learn what is mandatory and after hearing ustaadh’s lecture today i believe i need to start with aqeedah at the four fundamental prinicples. inshallah Allahu Must’aan barakallah feeki jazakallah khair
    Date: Wed, 16 Jan 2013 15:38:53 +0000

    • scientificgenius January 16, 2013 at 8:36 pm Reply

      walaiakaum salam warahamathullahi wabarakathuhu ukti Aisha… the recordings of all the classes are available at – establishingtheprinciples.wordpress.com

      right now the ETP four fundamental principles and Aqeedah are going on and listening to the recordings will help inshallah..

      barakallahu feekoum.. all the best ya ukti…

      zaiba binth shuraiz jawward hashim

    • sarf4sisters January 17, 2013 at 3:23 am Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Welcome back ukhtee…

      Alhamdullilaah, it is a big blessing that Allaah gave you this eagerness of learning your deen in a correct way, and May He aid you with this process and increase your knowledge in good.. Aameen

      Like ukht Zaiba said, baaraka Allaahu feeha, all the classes and notes are available and easy to access at http://establishingtheprinciples.wordpress.com .

      You can also find the text and recordings of ‘Aqeedah and the Four fundamental principles at:

      http://www.establishingtheprinciples.com/classes/four-fundamental-principles

      http://www.establishingtheprinciples.com/classes/creed

      If you still aren’t able to access, please let us know and we will see what the problem might be in shaa Allaah, Baaraka Allaahu feek

      وبالله التوفيق

      Umm Sufyaan

  2. ummnaz January 28, 2013 at 10:59 am Reply

    Assalam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu dear sister…Jazakillahu khairan sister.. you have typed
    مُعتَلُّ العَين , means that its ‘Ayn is Mu’tall (which makes it Naaqis)….but isint it supposed to be Ajwaf and not naaqis

    • sarf4sisters January 28, 2013 at 2:08 pm Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Wa iyyaaki ukhtee wa baaraka feeki

      The mistake has been corrected, alhamdullilaah. May Allaah reward you.. aameen

      وبالله التوفيق

      Umm Sufyaan

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