Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 38

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

The third type of verbs to which the first chapter is a Qiyaas:

المُضَعَّف المُتَعَدِّي  – The crossing verb which has an identical ‘Ayn and Laam

  • You can say مُضَعَّف  or مُضَاعَف

Vocabulary

سَبَبَ , صَبَبَ, حَثَثَ, حَجَجَ, رَدَدَ, مَدَدَ, سَرَرَ, ضَرَرَ, خَصَصَ, قَصَصَ, دَلَلَ, ذَمَمَ, عَمَمَ, سَنَنَ, ظَنَنَ

Having two identical letters in a row causes heaviness in speech, and that is avoided

What do you do in this case?

1-      Drop the harakah of the first identical letters سَبَبَ —> سَبْبَ

2-      Then merge it into the second identical letter  سَبْبَ —> سَبَّ

Because the first identical letter is saakin and the second has a harakah it was safe to merge them, and they are expressed by what is called a شَدَّة (shaddah/ّ ) – It tells you that two identical letters are merged

سَبَّ was originally سَبَبَ and it is on the scale of فَعَلَ And this is what you are going to do with the rest

صَبَّ, حَثَّ, حَجَّ, رَدَّ, مَدَّ, سَرَّ, ضَرَّ, خَصَّ, قَصَّ, دَلَّ, ذَمَّ, عَمَّ, سَنَّ, ظَنَّ

  • The idea of dropping the harakah of the first identical letter is to be able to merge it into the second identical letter.
  • The condition of merging a letter into another letter, is that the first identical letter has to be saakin (silent) and the second has a harakah
  • Sukoon means no harakah
  • سَبَّ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ (sabba is on the scale of fa’ala), because it was originally سَبَبَ , and the harakah of the first identical letter was knocked off, for it to be merged into the second identical letter

They said drop the harakah of the first identical letter, so that you can merge it into the second identical letter سَبَبَ —> سَبْبَ —> سَبَّ

Whatever verb you find مُضَعَّف مُتَعَدٍّ it belongs to Chapter One-  This means that the mudaari’  of these verbs belong to the scale of يَفعُلُ

The Mudaari’ of سَبَّ was originally يَسْبُبُ – And you can notice here, that there is heaviness..

يَصبُبُ, يَحثُثُ, يَحجُجُ, يَردُدُ, يَمدُدُ, يَسرُرُ, يَضرُرُ, يَخصُصُ, يَقصُصُ, يَدلُلُ, يَذمُمُ, يَعمُمُ, يَسنُنُ, يَظنُنُ

Here we are going to do the same thing as we did in يَقوُلُ

1st : يَسْبُبُ – we give the dhammah on the first identical letter to the vacant letter before it (seen) يَسْبُبُ –> يَسُبْبُ  (this so that it can be merge to the letter before it)

2nd : Now we can merge the two identical letters, because the first identical letter is saakin and the second is mutaharrik, and give it a shaddah to identicate that merging,   يَسُبْبُ—> يَسُبُّ

And now we do the same with the rest of the verbs

يَصُبُّ, يَحُثُّ, يَحُجُّ, يَرُدُّ, يَمُدُّ, يَسُرُّ, يَضُرُّ, يَخُصُّ, يَقُصُّ, يَدُلُّ, يَذُمُّ, يَعُمُّ, يَسُنُّ, يَظُنُّ

  • As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 كَذَٰلِكَ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ مَا قَدْ سَبَقَ وَقَدْ آتَيْنَاكَ مِن لَّدُنَّا ذِكْرًا

Thus We relate to you (O Muhammad ) some information of what happened before. And indeed We have given you from Us a Reminder (this Qur’an). [20:99]

 تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ

Thinking that some calamity was about to fall on them; [75:25]

  • أَقُصُّ, نَقُصُّ, تَقُصُّ, يَقُصُّ  – Whether the letter of the Mudaari’ is a ‘hamzah’, a ‘noon’, a ‘taa’ or a ‘yaa’ it is going to be all the same

In General there are two cases:

1-      When you have to Merge

2-      When you have to Unmerge

When do you have to merge:

Regarding the Maadhee:

You have to unmerge whenever the verb is followed by ضَمِيرُ رَفعٍ مُتَحَرِّك , which are:

فَعَلتُ – تُ 

فَعَلنَا – نَا

فَعَلتَ – تَ

فَعَلتِ – تِ

فَعَلنَ – نَ

These are dhamaa-ir and they have a harakah and express the doer.

And you have to merge with the rest

Basically: We Unmerge in the Mutakallim and the Mukhaatab and in one of the Ghaaib, which is هُنَّ when we attached نُونُ الإنَاثة  to the verb – And in the rest of the Ghaaib you have to Merge. (in the screenshot you can see where to merge highlighted in red)

  • There are four of تُ in the conjugation table تُ – تُمَا – تُم – تُنَّ , and they all express the doer – And the other two cases where there is a ت , is with a fathah تَ (the male spoken to) and with a kasrah تِ (the female spoken to)
  • You HAVE to unmerge, there is no option.
  • If you think it is too much  and will complicate to say: ضَميرُ رَفعٍ مُتَحَرِّك  you can also just say ضَميرُ مُتَحَرِّك
  • Notice: The ‘taa’ in فَعَلَتَا , is not like the ‘taa’ in فَعَلتَ , in فَعَلَتَا it is the feminine taa تَاءُ التأنِيث السَّاكِنَة , and it doesn’t effect at all.  It got a fathah to suit the alif which comes after it.

Conjugation of سَنَّ in the Maadhee:

When the verb is مُضَعَّف مُتَعَدٍّ

فَعَلتُ                                                       سَنَنْتُ

فَعَلنَا                                                            سَنَنَّا      

 

سَنَنْتُ

1st : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the ‘seen’ and give it a fathah   فَ – سَ

2nd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘noon’ and give it a fathah فَعَ – سَنَ

3rd : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘noon’, and give it a sukoon   فَعَلْ – سَنَنْ

4th : We attach the ‘taa’ and give it a dhammah   فَعَلْتُ – سَنَنْتُ

 

سَنَنَّا

1st : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the ‘seen’ and give it a fathah  فَ – سَ

2nd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘noon’ and give it a fathah فَعَ – سَنَ

3rd : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘noon’, and give it a sukoon   فَعَلْ – سَنَنْ

4th : We attach the نَا‘- فَعَلْنَا – سَنَنْنَا

Now we notice that the last two noons – the first noon which is laamul kalimah is saakin and the second noon which is a dhameer ‘ نَا’ has a fathah (is mutaharrik) نْنَا

This means that we can merge these two noons, because they are two identical letters and the first one is silence and the second one is mutaharrik (And this is a General principle)- So here we merge the two identical letters and give it a shadda to identicate the merging سَنَنْنَا —> سَنَنَّا

If we do it for example with سَبَّ , it would be سَبَبْنَا , and there won’t  be any merging here, because the Laam isn’t identical with ‘ نَا

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

 

Screen shots: Tasreeful 'izziyy 38 -1Tasreeful 'izziyy 38-2Tasreeful 'izziyy 38- 3 Tasreeful 'izziyy 38-4

2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 38

  1. Umm Saleem January 29, 2013 at 12:03 am Reply

    As-salaamo aleykunna wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh,
    I was wondering what the term “مُضَعَّف” means? I am familiar with the term “مُتَعَدٍّ” which means a verb that is transitive, as opposed to a word which requires a preposition. I am very sorry if the brother has already explained this however I don’t seem to have read it anywhere in the class notes. Barak Allaahu feekunna

    • sarf4sisters January 29, 2013 at 1:49 pm Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Hayyaaki Allaah ukhtee…

      مُضَعَّف means: That which is doubled

      And it is given that name due to the ‘ayn and laam being identical (doubled)- As for example the verb مَدَّ , which originally is مَدَدَ – here you can see that the ‘ayn and laam are both doubled (two daals), so we say this verb is مُضَعَّف

      In shaa Allaah it is clear,

      Wa feeki baarak,

      Umm Sufyaan

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