Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 40

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

Conjugation of  سَبَّ   in the Mudaari’

When the verb is مُضَعَّف مُتَعَدٍّ

أَفعُلُ                                                            أسُبُّ

نَفعُلُ                                                            نَسُبُّ      

تَفعُلُ                                                            تَسُبُّ

تَفعُلِينَ                                                         تَسُبِّينَ

تَفعُلاَنِ                                                        تَسُبَّانِ

تَفعُلُونَ                                                        تَسُبُّونَ

تَفعُلنَ                                                          تَسْبُبْنَ

يَفعُلُ                                                            يَسُبُّ

  تَفعُلُ                                                          تَسُبُّ

يَفعُلاَنِ                                                         يَسُبَّانِ

تَفعُلاَنِ                                                         تَسُبَّانِ

يَفعُلُونَ                                                          يَسُبُّونَ

يَفعُلنَ                                                           يَسْبُبْنِ

As for the Mudaari’ it is always merged except in one case which is:  When it is attached to نُونُ الإِنَاثَة

أَسُبُّ

أَسُبُّ  was originally أَسْبُبُ

1st  : We bring the hamzah of the Mudaari’ and give it a fathah  أَ – أَ

2nd : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the ‘seen’ and give it a sukoon  أَفْ – أَسْ

3rd  : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘ first baa’ and give it a dhammah أَفْعُ – أَسْبُ

4th  : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘second baa’, and give it a dhammah أَفْعُلُ – أَسْبُبُ

5th : We give the dhammah on the first baa to the vacant Seen before it أَسُبْبُ

6th : We merge the first baa (which is silent) into the second baa (which has a harakah ‘dhammah’) and give it a shaddah أَسُبُّ

Here the same thing that was done to أَقْوُلُ is done to أسْبُبُ

In أَقْوُلُ we give the dhammah on the waaw to the vacant letter before it (the qaaf) أَقُولُ

In أَسبُبُ  – Here بُبُ is heavy and we want to get rid of this heaviness by merging the first baa into the second. So we give the dhammah on the first baa to the vacant letter before it (the seen)  أسُبْبُ – Now we have cleared the way for the first baa to be merged into the next أسُبُّ

The same thing we do to the rest except when it is attached to نُونُ الإنَاثَة , which is in أنتُنَّ تَفعَلنَ and هُنَّ يَفعَلنَ

Basically what you are going to do is merge the two baa’s

  • تَقُولُ أنتَ أيُّهَا الطَّالِب وَتَقُولِينَ أنتِ أيُّهَا الطَّالِبَة – What do you say o student and o female student

 

نَسُبُّ

نَسُبُّ was originally نَسْبُبُ

1st  : We bring the noon of the Mudaari’ and give it a fathah  نَ – نَ

2nd : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the ‘seen’ and give it a sukoon   نَفْ – نَسْ

3rd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘ first baa’ and give it a dhammah نَفْعُ – نَسْبُ

4th  : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘second baa’, and give it a dhammah نَفْعُلُ – نَسْبُبُ

5th : We give the dhammah on the first baa to the vacant Seen before it نَسُبْبُ

6th  : We merge the first baa (which is silent) into the second baa (which has a harakah ‘dhammah’) and give it a shaddah نَسُبُّ

•             So here the only thing we changed is the letter of the Mudaari’ أَسُبُّ – نَسُبُّ

Example of the same type of verb from the Quraan:

الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 كَلَّا سَنَكْتُبُ مَا يَقُولُ وَنَمُدُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ مَدًّا

Nay! We shall record what he says, and We shall increase his torment (in the Hell); [19:79]

  • نَمُدُّ – نَسُبُّ

 فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا

So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number (of the days of the life of this world and delay their term so that they may increase in evil and sins). [19:84]

  • نَعُدُّ – نَسُبُّ

 

تَسُبُّ

Here we do the same, we only change the letter of the Mudaari’

تَسُبِّينَ

Here there is just a slide difference

1st : We bring the taa of the Mudaari’ and give it a fathah  تَ – تَ

2nd : We bring Faa-ul kalimah, which is the ‘seen’ and give it a sukoon  تَفْ – تَسْ

3rd : We bring ‘Aynul kalimah, which is the ‘ first baa’ and give it a dhammah تَفْعُ – تَسْبُ

4th : We bring Laamul kalimah, which is the ‘second baa’ and give it a dhammah (this is the default state of the mudaari’, before we attach any dhameer)   تَسْبُبُ

5th : Give the harakah of the first baa to the vacant letter before it  تَسْبُبُ —> تَسُبْبُ

6th : We merge the two identical letters   تَسُبْبُ —> تَسُبُّ

7th   : We attach يَاءُ المُؤَنَّثَةِ المُخَاطَبَةِ   and the noon (grammatical sign) تَسُبُّينَ

8th : We give the merged baa the harakah that suits the yaa which is the kasrah تَسُبُّينَ —>
      تَسُبِّينَ
 

Reminder:

Principle: If the letter which represents the dhameer is one of the three letters (hurooful ‘illah) then we give the letter before the harakah suiting it

  • If it was an Alif we give the letter before a fathah
  • If it was a Yaa we give the letter before a kasrah
  • If it was a Waaw we give the letter before a dhammah

تَسُبَّانِ

Here we do the same, but we give the baa a fathah to suit the Alif

تَسُبُّونَ

Here we merge and give the baa a dhammah to suit the Waaw

تَسبُبْنَ

Here laamul kalimah is silenced and after it comes نُونُ الإِنَاثة  , so we unmerge تَسْبُبْنَ

  • Don’t forget the harakah on the ‘ayn of the Mudaari’ (which is a dhammah)

يَسُبُّ, تَسُبُّ, يَسُبَّانِ, تَسُبَّانِ, يَسُبُّونَ

Here we merge and do the same as we did before the only thing that differs is the letter of the Mudaari’

Example of the same type:

الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلَامٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَاتُ اللَّـهِ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea (were ink wherewith to write), with seven seas behind it to add to its (supply), yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. [31:27]

  • يَمُدُّ يَسُبُّ
  • تَسُبَّانِ was originally تَسْبُبَانِ – The dhammah on the first baa moved to the vacant letter before تَسُبْبَان and now we can merge the two identical letters (baa)  and we give it a shaddah تَسُبَّانِ

يَسْبُبْنَ

Here laamul kalimah is silenced and after it comes نُونُ الإِنَاثة  , so we unmerge يَسْبُبْنَ

Example of the same type:

الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), [33:36]

  • يَغْضُضْنَ – يَسْبُبْنَ

Extra: When you have the principles you start making up the verbs yourself and this is the most important, and when it becomes a second nature to you and you read the quraan everything falls in place and you know what the verb does.

 

 ~~~ End Chapter One ~~~

The text >>>

[ البَابُ الأَوَّلُ وَالثَّانِي]

أَمَّا الثُّلاَثِيُّ المُجَرَّدُ: فَإِن كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ مَفتُوحُ العَينِ … فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفعُلُ, أَو يَفعِلُ, بِضَمِّ العَينِ, أَو كَسرِهَا, نَحوَ: نَصَرَ يَنصُرُ, وَضَرَبَ, يَضرِبُ

As for the three letter verb  which is free from any extra letters: If its Maadhee was on the scale of فَعَلَ , the one who’s ‘ayn has a fathah, its Mudaari comes on the scale of يَفعُلُ or يَفعِلُ, with a dhammah on the ‘ayn or a kasrah, such as: نَصَرَ, يَنصُرُ  and ضَرَبَ, يَضرِبُ

  • Whatever you see between brackets is not the quote of the author, rather it was added for further clarification
  • أمَّا : as for
  • أَو : or
  • نَحوُ : such as/ like
  • These examples are made as a common example to unite.
  • نَصَرَ, يَنصُرُ : is the common example of chapter one
  • ضَرَبَ, يَضرِبُ : is the common example of chapter two

[ البَابُ الثَّالِث ]

وَيَجِيءُ عَلَى وَزنِ يَفعَلُ بِفَتحِ العَينِ

And it comes on the sale of يَفعَلُ with a fathah on the ‘Ayn

Chapter two فَعَلَ, يَفعِلُ >>>

This chapter is أَصل (asl)

The principle is that the harakah in the Maadhee should differ from the harakah on the ‘ayn of the Mudaari’

And if the harakah on the ‘ayn is the same, then this is an exception

 

The common example of the مُتَعَد :

ضَرَبَ, يَضرِبُ

He hit, he hits

 

The common example of the لاَزِم :

جَلَسَ, يَجلِسُ

He sat, he sits

We know now that Chapter one is a Qiyaas in three forms of verbs

1-      When ‘Aynul Kalimah is a Waaw

2-      When Laamul Kalimah is a Waaw

3-      When it is Muda’’f which is Muta’add

  • Chapter two is in opposition of the Chapter one
  • In chapter two it was a Yaa instead of a Waaw, because in Chapter one ‘aynul kalimah is a dhammah and the letter that suits the dhammah is a Waaw- And in Chapter two ‘aynul kalimah is a kasrah and he letter that suits the kasrah is a Yaa

As for Chapter two it is a Qiyaas in four forms of verbs

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 40-1Tasreeful 'izziyy 40-2

2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 40

  1. Obaid Ibn Owais April 5, 2013 at 6:29 am Reply

    Assalamoalaikum.Pardon me if I am mistaken as I am just a beginner but I feel their is a slight error .in Tassubeena it is writtten”8th : We give the merged baa the harakah that suits the yaa which is the kasrah تَسُبُّينَ —..while it is written tasubaina “.might be typing error I guess and its written tassubaina instead of tassubeena?

    • sarf4sisters April 5, 2013 at 7:04 am Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      No problem….. It seems like the baa has a fathah, but because there is a shaddah in some writtings the kasrah is written under the shaddah and not under the letter, so it reads ‘tasubbeena’ – but if it has a fathah it would be written on top of the shaddah and not under it, like so تَسُبَّينَ

      والله تعالى أعلم

      I hope this makes it clear in shaa Allaah,

      Baaraka Allaahu feek…

      وبالله التوفيق

      Admin

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