Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 42

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

Conjugation of قَالَ  in the Maadhiy

When ‘aynul kalimah is a yaa

فَعَلتُ                                                          قِلتُ

فَعَلنَا                                                           قِلنَا

فَعَلتَ                                                          قِلتَ

فَعَلتِ                                                          قِلتِ

فَعَلتُمَا                                                          قِلتُما

فَعَلتُم                                                           قِلتُم

فَعَلتُنَّ                                                           قِلتُنَّ

فَعَلَ                                                            قَال

فَعَلَتْ                                                          قَالَتْ

فَعَلاَ                                                             قَالا

فَعَلَتَا                                                            قَالَتَا

فَعَلُوا                                                            قَالُوا

فَعَلنَ                                                            قِلنَ

 

This kind of conjugation has been explained before with قَال (when ‘aynul kalimah is originally a waaw)

A recap of how we changed قَالَ to  قُلتُ

1st : We bring faa-ul kalimah, which is the qaaf and give it a fathah  فَ – قَ

2nd : We bring ‘aynul kalimah, which is the waaw and give it a fathah فَعَ – قَوَ

3rd : We bring laamul kalimah, which is the laam and silence it  فَعَلْ – قَوَلْ

4th : We add the taa-ul faa’il and give it a dhammah فَعَلِتُ – قَوَلْتُ

5th : Turn the Waaw into an Alif قَوَلْتُ —> قَالْتُ

Here we can apply the principle of turning this waaw into an alif, because it is mutharrik and the letter before it has a fathah

6th : We drop the first saakin letter, which is the alif قَالْتُ —> قَلْتُ

Now there are two sukoons in a row and this is avoided. We either drop this first saakin letter or give it a harakah- Here we drop it, because it is one of hurooful ‘illah and there is proof of the letter dropped (a fathah)

7th : We give faa-ul kalimah, which is the qaaf a dhammah قَلِتُ —> قُلتُ

Here the Arabs gave this qaaf a dhammah to know that the dropped alif was originally a waaw, and that what suits the waaw is a dhammah

If they gave faa-ul kalimah a dhammah in this case to show that the alif was originally a waaw, then what do you expect them to do when the alif is originally a yaa?

They give faa-ul kalimah a kasrah to show that the alif was originally a yaa

Basically:

When the dropped alif is originally a waaw, we are going to give the letter before a dhammah, to identify that the alif dropped was originally a waaw

And when the dropped alif is originally a yaa,  we are going to give the letter before a kasrah, to identify that the alif dropped was originally a yaa.

  • Meaning that if it was a fathah, the letter after it would be an alif- And if there is a kasrah the letter after it would be a yaa- And if there is a dhammah the letter after it would be a waaw
  • If one who would analyze this word ‘ قُلتُ’ , he would come to the conclusion that there is a letter missing here, because taa-ul faa’il is an extra letter and not part of the verb. Knowing that it is not part of the verb and that there is a letter missing here (which is ‘aynul kalimah)-He will know according to the principle learned that the letter dropped is a harf ‘illah and it got dropped because it met with a saakin letter and that the dropped harfu ‘illah is a waaw, because the letter before it got a dhammah.  If we said instead of قُلْتُ – قِلْتُ , the dropped letter would be originally a yaa

We are going to do the same, and whenever Laamul kalimah is silenced (which is when the taa of the doer or naa of the doer or noon of the doer ‘ نُونُ الإنَاثة’ are attached to it), we drop the alif (originally a yaa) and give faa-ul kalimah a kasrah

  • We have 6 taa-ul faa’il – فَعَلْتُ, فَعَلْتَ, فَعَلْتِ, فَعَلْتُمَا, فَعَلْتُم, فَعَلْتُنَّ

 

 

قِلتُ, قِلْنَا, قِلْتَ, قِلتِ, قِلْتُمَا, قِلْتُم, قِلْتُنَّ, قِلْنَ

Here we silenced laamul kalimah and dropped ‘aynul kalimah (originally a yaa) and gave faa-ul kalimah a kasrah and we attached the correct dhameer to it.

  • قِلتُ : i had a day nap

 

 

قَالَ, قَالَتْ, قَالاَ, قَالَتَا, قَالُوا

Here laamul kalimah isn’t silenced so we don’t need to give faa-ul kalimah (the qaaf) a kasrah, because the alif isn’t dropped.

  • Do notice that قَالَ here is different than قَالَ of chapter one- Here the ‘ayn is a yaa and there it is a waaw- And this makes a different in meaning

قِلنَ is on the scale of what?

قِلنَ عَلَى وزنِ فِلنَ

قِلنَ is on the scale of فِلنَ

Because whatever we drop from the word weighed we drop from the scale, and whatever harakah the word takes the scale of it takes it as well.

 

Explanation on how قِلتُ  is on the scale of فِلتُ

قِلتُ is originally قَالتُ

قَالتُis on the scale of فَعَلتُ (the alif in qaaltu is not an extra letter it is original (‘aynul kalimah))

To get قِلتُ we dropped the alif, which represents ‘aynul kalimah قَالتُ – ا = قَلْتُ

We do the same to the scale and drop ‘aynul kalimah فَعَلْتُ – ع = فَلْتُ

After we dropped the Alif on the word weighed we gave the Qaaf (faa-ul kalimah) a kasrah قِلْتُ

We do the same to the scale and give faa-ul kalimah a kasrah قِلْتُ—> فِلْتُ

And this makes قِلْتُ on the scale of فِلْتُ

  • قِلنَ عَلَى وَزنِ مَاذَا ؟  (qilna is on the scale of what?)
  • We are going to treat the scale as if it is the words mirror

We don’t make a change to the scale whenever there is an إعلاَل (i’laal) in the word weighed.

As for example if the waaw or the yaa (the original letters) of the word are changed into an Alif we don’t do the same to the scale  قَوَلَ —> قَالَ , فَعَلَ —> فَالَ this is wrong but it stays فَعَلَ — > فَعَلَ

But if there is a letter dropped from the word weighed we drop from the scale and if the harakah changes we change it in the scale.

  • إعلال is an effect that changes or that moves a letter
  • The main point of the scale is to weigh words (knowing the extra from the original the harakaat the order etc)

If you are aware of the basic principle of this science- And you were told to bring قَالَ to the scale of  فِلْتُ

You basically are going to make it sound similar to it, and do the following:

1-      Exchange the fathah on faa-ul kalimah with a kasrah قِال

2-      Drop ‘Aynul kalimah قِل

3-      Silence the laam قِلْ

4-      Add Taa-ul Faa’il قِلْت

5-      Give it a dhammah قِلْتُ

  • The scale is to know how the word is, it is like the skeleton of the word
  • If you don’t know how to weigh a word than you only know half of Sarf
  • Sometimes the different in meanings is only discovered by the scale

As for example:

The word اِسمٌ means A Name/Noun

Looking at it you would think it is on the scale of فِعلٌ , but it isn’t

Some scholars would say:

اِسمٌ عَلَى وَزنِ اِفعٌ   – And others would say: اِسمٌ عَلَى وَزنِ اِعلٌ

The scholars who said, that it is on the scale of اِفْعٌ , say that it is originally سِموٌ (the masdar), which means that the waaw was dropped (laamul kalimah), and they made up for it by adding an alif in the beginning  – And its verb is سَمَوَ

And other scholars who said, that it is on the scale of اِعلٌ , say that it is originally وَسمٌ (the masdar) , which means that the waaw was dropped (faa-ul kalimah), and they made up for it by adding  an alif in the beginning

  • Here they differ in the Masdar (where this word is coming from)
  • وَسمٌ : Making a sign –  Those who said it is taken from this word, is because they say that it is from a sign that differentiate you from other people
  • سِموٌ : ascending/ rising  – And those who said it is taken from this word, is because they say that the one who has given a name was risen from other people by that name

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 42-1Tasreeful 'izziyy 42 - 2Tasreeful 'izziyy 42- 3Tasreeful 'izziyy 42- 4

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