Sarf – Level 2 – Class 28

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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TOPIC of The DARS: Completing the meanings of the fifth chapter of المزيد فيه بحرفين 

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In the previous class we completed the meanings of the fourth chapter and gave two meanings for باب التفعُّل  We took ifta`ala, infa`ala, if`alla, tafaa`ala and today we take the rest of tafa“ala 

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 هذا الباب يَرِدُ لِمَعَانٍ 

  • يرد is ورد (yaridu is from warida) and it means: “to come, arrive, occur, approaches…
  • هذا الباب means:  “this chapter”
  • لمعان means: “for meanings” (ma`aan is the plural of مَعْنى)
  • This chapter comes for meanings.

The first meaning we learned was: مطاوعة قعّل  like in: “Kassartuhu fatakassara”  Qatt`atuhu fataqatta`a  (I cut it into pieces so it got cut into pieces)    What would be the mutaawa`i for:  Qatt`ana Aydiyahunna?   It would be: taqatta`at.
قطَّعن أيدِيَهُنَّ فِتَقَطَّعت  Qatt`ana aydiyahunna fataqatta`at.  “They (f) did cuts on their hands so thier hands got cut (received several cuts).”

Or like we learned in last class:  عَلَّمْتُهُ فَتَعَلَّمَ “I taught him so he got taught (learned)”  or – نَبَّهْتُهُ فَتَنَبَّهَ  “I warned him so he took heed” / “I alarmed him so he was alarmed”

the second meaning we learned was:  التكلف  which means something that needs time to be done –  happens gradually.  Things that are done are either done at once or are done in several steps or at times –  it is also called معاناة. (effort)

An Example: تَعَلَّمْتُ الأصولَ  ta`allamtul-usuul  – I learned the principles over time –  it didn’t happen at once but in two years or a year etc…

Another example:  تَشَجَّعَ رَيْدٌ – Zayd worked on being courageous –  he built up his courage over time.

Tashajj`a can also be used for mutawaa`ah as well:  it could be said:  شَجّعتُ ابْنِي قَتَشَجَّعَ – I encouraged my son so he became courageous/brave – got encouraged.

Another example:     تَصَبَّرَ طُلاب المرحلة الأولى – The first level students worked on patience. (with effort).  If we said:  تَصَابَرَ – that would give the meaning of pretending (at-Tathaahur).

And another example of التظاهر (at-tathaahur) is: تعالم بعض المغافلين – Some of the foolish pretended to be knowledgeable.

Third Meaning:

The meaning of avoiding is called: التجنب

أَثِمَ  means “sinned” and تَأَثَّمَ means “fell into sin” –   means avoided sinning/falling into sin.

تَحَرَّجَ means avoided falling into shame. (حرج) –  He avoided what he would be ashamed of if he did.

Example of this meaning is in Saheeh al Bukhaaree Hadeeth #3:

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت أول ما بدئ برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الوحي الرؤيا الصادقة . فكان لا يرى رؤيا إلا جاءت مثل فلق الصبح ثم حبب إليه الخلاء . فكان يخلو بغار حراء ، فيتحنث فيه
وهو التعبد – الليالي ذوات العدد . قبل أن ينزع إلى أهله . ويتزود لذلك . ثم يرجع إلى خديجة فيتزود لمثلها ، حتى فجأه الحق ، وهو في غار حراء ، فجاءه الملك فقال اقرأ فقلت : ما أنا بقارئ . قال فأخذني فغطني

The point ustaadh brings to our attention is first in the hadeeth there is a quote between two dashes-

فيتحنث فيه – وهو التعبد – الليالي ذوات العدد

this quote is not from the narration of A`ishah radiyallahu anhaa –  but is a sentence added from one of the narrators – he is Ibnu Shihaab Az-Zuhri.  Why did he add this sentence?  (وهو التعبد).  Let us first understand what is  -يتحنث  and then we will come to know why he added this.  يتحنث is taken from الحنث  And al-hinth is al-ithm –  it is the sin, as Allaah Ta`Aalaa said in the Qur’aan (56/46):

وَكَانُوا يُصِرُّونَ عَلَى الْحِنثِ الْعَظِيمِ

So if Al-hinth is the sin and one came to you and said “yatahanath”, you (if you were an Arab) would think “he falls into sinning”, because this (At-tajannub)  is not the commonly used meaning of this chapter –  it is one of its meaning.  So just by hearing this verb (tahanath) we Arabs would think, “he fell into sin”. (as to one of its meaning which has not been mentioned)   By adding the sentence, the narrator wanted to clarify that this is for the meaning of at-tajannab –  so yatahanath here means he does what makes him AVOID falling into sin which is worshipping –  So Imaam ibnu Shihaab Az-Zuhri, added this sentence to bring our attention to the fact that yatahanath here is used for the meaning of at-tajannub by saying, (in translation) “at-tahannuth here is at- ta`abbud –  the worshipping.”

All of what Ustaadh has given us are common meanings –  and the common meaning for tafa“ala is at-takalluf.  But if one said attahannuth it would be closer to the meaning of doing it than avoiding it as this is what is apparent.   We would know the meaning of verbs by the context in which they came.

Sometimes while narrating, the narrators would pause and do an interpretation while narrating –  for a very great importance.

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

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S2 28.1

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