Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 49

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

Chapter four and five

Chart 49

From this chart, you can understand that all verbs which come on the scale of فَعِلَ are one of two combinations:

–          With يَفعَلُ

–          Or with يَفعِلُ , and those are only 33 verbs

Which means that if the verbs upon the second combination are only 33, then this tells us that every verb which isn’t has to belong to the other main combination (i.e. with يَفعِلُ )

  • This means that the rest of verbs on the scale of فَعِلَ follow the combination of يَفعَلُ

Basically, from the total number of verbs which are on the scale of فَعِلَ only 33 verbs were odd (i.e. they were combined with يَفعِلُ instead of يَفعَلُ)

Chapter four is :   فَعِلَ يَفعَلُ

  • As mentioned in the text:

وَإن كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعِلَ, مَكسُورُ العَينِ…. فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفعَلُ, بِفَتحِ العَينِ, نَحوُ : عَلِمَ يَعلَمُ

And if its Maadhee was on the scale of فَعِلَ , having a kasrah on the ‘ayn … then its Mudaari’ is يَفعَلُ, with a fathah on the ‘ayn, like as: عَلِمَ يَعلَمُ

  • فَعِلَ –   يَفعَلُis considered a Qiyaas – meaning that it follows a principle (rule), that the harakah of the ‘Ayn in the Maadhee should be different than the harakah of the ‘ayn in the Mudaari’- And when it doesn’t follow the rule it is considered Odd

Chapter five is: فَعِلَ يَفعِلُ

  • As mentioned in the text

إلاَّ مَا شَذَّ مِن نَحوِ : حَسِبَ يَحسِبُ, وَأَخَوَاتِهِ

Except what was odd such as:  حَسِبَ يَحسِبُ , and its sisters

The 33 verbs which we mentioned, are of two types:

1)      Some of them have a multi-usage, meaning they can be spoken in both ways

فَعِلَ يَفعَلُ              فَعِلَ يَفعِلُ

And they are 13 verbs:

حَسِبَ – يَحسَبُ / يَحسِبُ

وَغِرَ – يَوغَرُ / يَغِرُ

  • In يَوغَرُ we don’t drop the waaw because it is not between two different enemies (the fathah and the kasrah) – rather it is between one kind (two fathas). In يَغِرُ we do drop the waaw because it is between to different enemies (fathah and kasrah)

وَحِرَ – يَوحَرُ / يَحِرُ

نَعِمَ – يَنعَم / يَنعِمُ

بَئِسَ – يَبأَسُ / يَبئِسُ

يَئِسَ – يَيأَسُ / يَيئِسُ

وَلِهَ – يَولَهُ / يَلِهُ

يَبِسَ – يَيبَسُ / يَيبِسُ

وَهِلَ – يَوهَلُ / يَهِلُ

وَلِغَ – يولَغُ / يَلِغُ

وَبِقَ – يَوبَقُ / يَبِقُ

وَحِمَتْ – تَوحَمُ / تَحِمُ

  • The taa of femininity is added because this act is strictly to females

وَزِعَ – يَوزَعُ / يَزِعُ

2)      The rest (i.e. 20) can only be used oddly (i.e. only with يَفعِلُ ) which are:

وَرِثَ – يَرِثُ

وَلِيَ – يَلِي

وَرِمَ – يَرِمُ

وَرِعَ – يَرِعُ

وَمِقَ – يَمِقُ

وَثِقَ – يَثِقُ

وَرِيَ – يَرِي

وَجِدَ – يَجِدُ

وَعِقَ – يَعِقُ

وَرِكَ – يَرِكُ

وَكِمَ – يَكِمُ

وَقِهَ – يَقِهُ

وَعِمَ – يَعِمُ

طَاحَ – يَطِيحُ

  • طَاحَ is originally طَيِحَthe yaa has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah so we can turn this yaa into an alif
  • يَطِيحُ is originally يَطيِحُ (we do the same as we did with يَقِيلُ) , we move the kasrah on the yaa due to heaviness to the vacant letter before it

تَاهَ – يَتِيهُ

  • Same as طَاحَ

وَطِئَ – يَطِئُ

وَسِعَ – يَسِعُ

وَهِمَ – يَهِمُ

آنَ – يَئِينُ

  • آنَ was originally أَيِنَ and here we turned the yaa into an alif, because it is mutaharrik and the letter before it has a fathah أانَ – Now we can merge the alif into the hamzah causing a madd (a prolonged Alif ) آنَ
  • Except what was odd, meaning فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ  , because it is odd to have the same harakah in the Maadhee and the Mudaari’
  • And the sisters of حَسِبَ يَحسِبُ  , which came odd
  • Multi-usage, meaning they can be spoken in both ways (as if they have two faces and one head) – And they can be spoken originally and odd
  • When it was said that the combination فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ  has only 33 verbs, it doesn’t mean that none of those verbs can also be used in the combination of  فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ
  • Originally they are odd فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ  (chapter 5) , but can also be used as Asl/Qiyaas (originally) فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ(chapter 6)
  • If you choose the combination of حَسِبَ – يَحسَبُ  you use chapter four – and if you choose the combination of حَسِبَ – يَحسِبُ  you use chapter five  – So how you use the verb determines the chapter and not vice versa
  • What are the verbs which you can fix/combine with يَفعِلُ ? Only 33 verbs and 13 of those verbs you can also combine with يَفعَلُ
  • Original combinations come first than odd comes

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 49-1Tasreeful 'izziyy 49 - 2


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