Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 51

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

  • The verbs which are on the scale of  فَعِلَ   have two combinations sometimes it is combined with يَفعَلُ and sometimes it is combined with يَفعِلُ
  • The 33 verbs which belong to فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ  and some of them could belong to فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ   , and any verb on the scale of فَعِلَ which is other than those 33 verbs has to come with يَفعَلُ
  • The verb عَلِمَ will be يَعلَمُ and رَكِبَ will be يَركَبُ and شَرِبَ will be يَشرَبُ  and سَمِعَ wil be يَسمَعُ because they are not one of the 33 verbs
  • عَلِمَ : He knew ; رَكِبَ : He rode ; شَرِبَ : He drank ; سَمِعَ : He heard

إلاَّ مَا شَذَّ مِن نَحوِ: حَسِبَ يَحسِبُ, وَأخَوَاتِهِ

  • إلاَّ مَا شَذَّ : except what was odd, meaning the 33 verbs
  • حَسِبَ يَحسِبُ, وَأخَوَاتِه : and its sisters meaning the sisters of حَسِبَ which is the rest of the 33 verbs

Chapter six

فَعُلَ – يَفعُلُ

وَإن كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلى وَزنِ فَعُلَ مَضمُومَ العَينِ…فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفعُلُ, بِضَمِّ العَين, نَحوُ : حَسُنَ يَحسُنُ

If its Maadhee was on the scale of فَعُلَ with a dhammah on the ‘ayn then its Mudaari’ is يَفعُلُ with the dhammah on the ‘ayn, such as: حَسُنَ يَحسُنُ  and its sisters

  • حَسُنَ : He/it was pleasant ; He became handsome/  good looking

We find فَعُلَ only coming with يَفعُلُ

The reason that all these verbs were sharing the same harakah in both the Maadhee and the Mudaari’ is because this form was used to express inborn characteristics, and natural dispositions, or qualities which one got adapted to.

This chapter is considered an exception, because of what is mentioned above

  • In فَعَلَ – يَفعَلُ  and فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ , the Maadhee and the Mudaari’ differ but the harakah of the ‘ayn are the same, here there is an exception either it is due to a condition or limited usage – And that is another reason than in فَعُلَ – يَفعُلُ

Example:

If you were born beautiful it is not that you are going to be beautiful on a day and ugly on the other day, but it is an inborn characteristics, it doesn’t change it remains with you. And this chapter is used to express that

حَسُنَ زَيدٌ : Zayd is handsome

Here we have used the Maadhee, and when using the Maadhee here are you trying to say or differentiate between what he was before and what he is now? No

يَحسُنُ زَيدٌ

By both time frames you want to point out that he has a certain characteristic which is adapted to him which is him being handsome

Here it doesn’t make a difference if you say it in the Maadhee or the Mudaari’, the only meaning that will change is the time frame that has been used in speech.

It is more suitable is to make the harakah of the ‘ayn in the Maadhee and the Mudaari’ be the same.

Here فَعُلَ was only used with يَفعُلُ , there is not another possibility

If you say:

عَلِمَ زَيدٌ : Zayd knew – This doesn’t necessarily mean that Zayd knows now

يَعلَمُ زَيدٌ : Zayd knows – This doesn’t necessarily mean that  Zayd didn’t know before

And that is why the harakah on the ‘ayn in the  Maadhee was best to be different than the harakah on the ‘ayn of the Mudaari’, to indicate the difference between the two usages – Because there is a difference between the Maadh and the Mudaari’.

  • If we say Zayd started becoming generous and he started getting adapted to generosity – here we say كَرُمَ زَيدٌ  (Zayd started being generous –he became adapted to it) – You might also use it in the Mudaari’ – When you start noticing that Zayd is starting to became generous (in the proses of picking up this character), you say يَكرُمُ زَيدّ  – If he always had that quality then you mostly use the Maadhee
  • Every verb expresses something which happened after it didn’t (things which occurred )- Those things which happen, some of them are characteristics which one is adapted to, like being good looking, being generous, being truthful, being sincere – once this characteristic  appears and shows that a certain individual is picking up a certain character we say for example حَسُنَ زَيدٌ – كَرُمَ زَيدٌ
  • We are talking about things which occurred became something permanent or almost permanent

An important point of benefit: Based on this, one can turn any verb on the scale of فَعَلَ or فَعِلَ  to this scale (i.e. فَعُلَ) to indicate and express that the doer became adapted to this act.

Example:

عَلِمَ زَيدٌ : Zayd knew

If you want to express that knowledge has become a second nature to Zayd (meaning;  he became knowledgeable),  you can bring it on this form to point that out and say:   عَلُمَ زَيدٌ

فَقِهَ زَيدٌ : Zayd understood

If you want to express that Zayd became an individual of understanding (one of the people of understanding), you bring it to this form to point that out and say: فَقُهَ زَيدٌ

And this is in the hadeeth of the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  , were he said:

مَثَلُ مَنْ فَقُهَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ  : That is the example of he who became understanding)

  • فَقِهَ – يَفقَهُ

~~~

What the author did is that he gave first the Mujarrad of the three letter verb (the six chapters) and now it was suitable that he introduced the Mujarrad of the four letter

[ الرُّبَاعِيُّ المُجَرَّد]

وَأَمَّا الرُّبَاعِيُّ المُجَرَّدُ: فَهُوَ بَابٌ وَاحِدٌ, فَعلَلَ, كَدَحرَجَ يُدَحرِجُ دَحرَجَةً, وَدِحرَاجًا

As for the Four letter verb having no extra letters: It is one Chapter فَعلَلَ , such as: دَحرَجَ – يُدَحرِجُ

  • الفِعلُ المُجَرَّدُ : The verb with no extra letters
  • When the fourth letter is original you add an extra laam on the scale
  • Here you notice in the Mudaari’ that the letter of the Mudaari’ –in this case ‘yaa’-  has a dhammah

PRINCIPLE:  The only time the letter of the Mudaari’ (i.e. أنيت) gets a dhammah is in the four letter verb

Whether this four letter verb has all original letters   مُجَرَّد, or three original letters with one extra letter added to it مَزِيد

  • What are we going to give it when it is a three letter verb? A fathah       –  And when it is a six letter verb? Also a fathah
  • The only time we give the letter of the Mudaari’ a dhammah, is when it is a four letter verb, whether Mujarrad of Mazeed –  Looking at its Maadh when
  • دَحرَجَةً and  دِحرَاجًا are two verbal nouns (masdar)
  • دَحرَجَةً and  دِحرَاجًا : a rolling over
  • يُدَحرِجُ : He rolls something over
  • In level two we will get three letter verbs with extra letters added to it

Vocabulary:

The four letter verb which is Mujarrad

دَحرَجَ

He rolled over something else

  • دَحرَجتُ طِفلِي : I rolled over my child

 

وَسوَسَ

He whispered

زَلزَلَ

He/it shook

  • Not earth quick, because that is a noun زِلزَال

With the Aid of Allaah we finished Sarf level 1- Walhamdullilaah!

Ustaadh -May Allaah reward him and bless his family- will give us an exam of level 1, and he gave us a break of three weeks to study well!

During this break ustaadh will post exercises for each class on the SITE for the students to practice, it is not compulsory,  but it will help a lot in shaa Allaah

~~~ End of Sarf level 1 ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 51 - 1Tasreeful 'izziyy 51- 2Tasreeful 'izziyy 51-3

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