Sarf – Level 2 – Revision 5

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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Continuing revision

المَزِيدُ فِيه بِحَرفَين

First Chapter

انفَعَلَ , يَنفَعِلُ, انفِعَلاً – بَابُ الانفِعَال

One of the meanings of    بَابُ الانفِعَال is:

المُطَاوَعَة The compliance

The receiver complying with the action (accepting it and taking the effect)

كَسَرَ

انكَسَرَ الزُّجَاجُ : The Glass broke

  • What does this mean? It means that the glass complied with an action which is breaking
  • He broke: كَسَرَ
  • انكَسَرَ complied with كَسَرَ, because انكَسَرَ expresses the compliance and accepting of the effect of that breaking
  • That breaking is expressed by the verb كَسَرَ

كَسَرَ, يَكسِرُ Is of Chapter 2  وَهُوَ مِن بَابِ ضَرَبَ لاَ شَك لأَنَّهُ مُتَعَدٍّ وَتَقُول كَسَرتُهُ

And whoever really pondered on this Chapter will find out that the original verb has to be مُتَعَدٍّ anyways, because if اِنكَسَرَ, اِنفَتَحَ, اِنقَطَعَ  was a result to that action, then that original action expressed by the مُجَرَّد has to be مُتَعَدٍّ – For example you don’t say  اِنخَرَجَ , because its مُجَرَّد which is خَرَجَ is  لاَزِم

And therefore اِنكَسَرَ, اِنفَتَحَ, اِنقَطَعَ    has to be لاَزِم, because it is a result which happened to something without it being related to something else it is effecting.

  • المُطَاوَع has to be مُتعَدٍّ
  • المُطَاوِع has to be لاَزِم

فَتَحَ

انفَتَحَ البَابُ : The door opened

  • انفَتَحَ : It opened

قَطَعَ

انقَطَعَ الحَبلُ : The rope got cut

  • الحَبلُ : The rope
  • انقَطَعَ : It got cut

مَحَا

انمَحَى المَكتُوبُ : The written was erased

  • مَحَا : He erased
  • انمَحَى : It got erased/wiped off
  • مَحَا, يَمحُو  – The alif is originally a waaw – Allaah سبحانه وتعالى   said:

يَمْحُو اللَّـهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ 

Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)[13:39]

It is not written like انحما with a standing alif, but with a sitting alif انمحَى

It was originally انمَحَوَ and here there is a PRINCIPLE that should be applied, which is:  If the waaw ended in fourth place or over it is turned into a ي

The principle in Arabic: إِذَ تَطَرَّفَتِ الوَاوُ رَابِعًا فَصَاعِدًا قُلِبَت يَاءً

  • And this is in a certain case if it is not an extra alif

اِنمَحَوَ— > اِنمَحَيَ  – Now we can apply the Principle that says: If a ي or a  و  is mutaharrik and the letter before it has a fathah we turn ي  or a  و  it into an Alif اِنمَحَى

طَوَى

انطَوَتِ السَّمَاءُ

  • انطَوَى : It folded

السَّمَاء is مُؤَنَّث , and that is why we added the taa of femininity –  اِنطَوَاتْ – Here we have two sukoons meeting and that is avoided- First we look at the first saakin letter and see if it is one of hurooful ‘illah and if the harakah before it is suitable to it- If it is we can drop the saakin letter-

And here the first saakin letter is an Alif (which is one of hurooful ‘illah) and the letter before it has a harakah (which is a fathah) suiting it, now it is safe to drop the Alif انطَوتْ

انطَوَتْ السَّمَاءُ  Here we also have التِقَاءُ السَّاكِنَين , the taa and the laam – Here we also inspect and see if the first saakin letter is one of hurooful ‘illah- Here it is not, so we go to plan B, which is that i fit wasn’t a harfu ‘illah we give it a kasrah.

  • السَّمَاءُ is of الشَّمسِيَّة and not القَمَرِيَّة ( here the laam gets merged with the letter after it ‘seen’)
  • طَوَى : He folded – As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 يَوْمَ نَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ كَطَيِّ السِّجِلِّ لِلْكُتُبِ كَمَا بَدَأْنَا أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُّعِيدُهُ وَعْدًا عَلَيْنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ

And (remember) the Day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books, as We began the first creation, We shall repeat it, (it is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it. [21:104]

سَدَّ

اِنسَدَّ الطَّرِيقُ

  • سَدَّ : He blocked
  • سَدَدتُ : I blocked (here we unmerge)
  • When do we have to merge? When the attached dhameer is silent and laamul kalimah isn’t – سَدَّا – سَدَّتَا – سَدُّوا
  • اِنسَدَّ : It got blocked – Here we merged, because it was first انسَدَدَ and the samething said in the  ثُلاَثي is said in the مَزِيد

جَرَّ

انجَرَّ قَمِيصُهُ

  • جَرَّ : He dragged
  • He pulled: سَحَبَ
  • المَرأةُ تَجُرُّ ذَيلَهَا : The woman drags her garment
  • مَن جَرَّ ثَوبَهُ خيَلاَء لَم يَنظُرِ الله إِليهِ يَومَ القِيَامَة : Whoever drags his over garment under his ankle Allaah won’t look at him on the day of judgment
  • إِذَا جَرَّ زَيدٌ قَمِيصَهُ فَقَدِ انجَرَّ
  • When the مُجَرَّد is changed to this مَزِيد , the مَفعُول becomes the فَاعِل

المَزِيدُ فِيه بِحَرفَين

Second Chapter

افتَعَلَ , يَفتَعِلُ, افتِعَالاً – بَابُ الافتِعَال

One of the meanings of     بَابُ الافتِعَال is:

المُطَاوَعَة The compliance

And this مُطَاوَعَة is either for فَعَلَ , فعَّلَ , فَعَلَ

هُوَ قَد يُطَاوِعُ الثُّلاَثِي أو الرُّبَاعِي الَّذِي عَلَى وَزنِ أفعَلَ أو الرُّبَاعِي الَّذِي عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَّلَ

المُطَاوَعَة for  فَعَلَ

جَمَعتُهُ فَاجتَمَعَ

جَمَعتُ المَالَ فَاجتَمَعَ المَالُ لِي : I gathered/collected the wealth then the wealth was collected for me

  • جَمَعتُ المَالَ – Here المَالَ is مَفعُول مَنصُوب (it took a fathah)
  • فَاجتَمَعَ المَالُ لِي  – And here المَالُ is فَاعِل مَرفُوع  (it took a dhammah)

حَرَقتُهُ فَاحتَرَقَ

حَرَقتُ الصُّورَةَ فَاحتَرَقَتِ الصُّورَةُ  : I burned the picture, so the picture got burnt

  • حَرَقتُ : I burned
  • الصُّورَة is  مُؤَنَّث so we say احتَرَقَتْ

المُطَاوَعَة for  فَعَّلَ

نَقَلتُهُ فانتَقَلَ

نَقَلتُ الكُرسِيَّ فَانتَقَلَ الكُرسِيُّ  : I moved the chair so the chair got moved

  • نَقَلتُ : I transferred/moved
  • Don’t say انتَقَلَ is on the scale of  انفَعَلَ – Because the noon here is أَصلِيَّة not  زَائِدَة , it is فَاءُ الكَلِمَة  – And what makes it clear is that the extra letter in انفَعَلَ is before the faa and in افتَعَلَ it is after the faa

رَدَدتُهُ فارتَدَّ

رَدَدتُ الطَّلَبَ فَارتَدَ الطَّلَبُ  : I rejected the request so the request got rejected

  • ارتَدَّ was originally  ارتَدَدَ – And the Mazeed is treated in the same way as the mujarrad

قَرَّبَهُ فَاقتَرَبَ

قَرَّبتُ الطَّالِبَ فَاقتَرَبَ  : I brought the student close/near so he got close

  • قَرَّبَ : He made near – it is the تَعدِيَة of قَرُبَ : He came close/near
  • They call it لاَزِم because it sticks to the doer
  • قَرُبَ is laazim and regarding المُطَلوَعَة it is from a Muta’add verb- And that is why اقتَرَبَ is from قَرَّبَ and not قَرُبَ

عَدَّلَهُ فَاعتدَلَ

عَدَّلتُ السَّهمَ فَاعتَدَلَ  : I straightened the arrow so it got straightened

المُطَاوَعَة for  أفعَلَ

أَنصَفتُ التُّفَّاحَةَ فانتَصَفَتْ : I split the apple so it got split

  • أنصَفتُ : I split it into half

 

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة

والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Sarf level 2 -35-1

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