Sarf – Level 2 – Revision 6

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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المَزِيدُ فِيه بِحَرفَين

Chapter 2

بَابُ الافتِعَال

افتَعَلَ , يَفتَعِلُ, افتِعَالاً

Second Meaning of this Chapter:  المُبَالَغَة

أن يَكُونَ المَزِيدُ فِيه بِمَعنَى مُجَرَّدِهِ

That the Mazeed has the same meaning as its Mujarrad

  • المُبَالَغَة أو تَقُول المُوَافقَة وَهَذَا مَعنًا ثَانٍ

اكتَسَبَ, بِمَعنَى كَسَبَ

  • كَسَبَ : He gained/earned/won
  • اكتَسَبَ means the same, but it is لِلمُبَالَغَة
  • اِكتَسَبتُ مَالاً, بِمَعنَى كَسَبتُه : I earned wealth, meaning i earned it

اِختَرَقَ ,بِمَعنَى خَرَقَ

  • خَرَقَ : He make or tear a hole (it could also be used for the meaning of penetration)
  • خَرَقَ و احتَرَقَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى
  • خَرَقَ, يَخرَقُ مِنَ البَابِ الثَّالِث
  • خَرَقتُ الثَّوبَ : I made a hole in the garment
  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ شُرَكَاءَ الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ وَخَرَقُوا لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

Yet, they join the jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them (the jinns), and they attribute falsely without knowledge sons and daughters to Him. Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him. [6:100]

 

اختَبَرَ, بِمَعنَى خَبَرَ

  • خَبَرَ : He examined
  • خَبَرَ و اختَبَرَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى
  • One can say who he got to know very well  خَبَرتُهُ : I got to know him very well
  • خَبَرَ, يَخبُرُ

ارتَحَلَ, بِمَعنَى رَحَلَ

  • رَحَلَ : He left off
  • رَحَلَ و ارَتَحَلَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى
  • رَحَلَ, يَرحَلُ فَهُوَ مِنَ البَابِ الثَّالِث

استَرَقَ, بِمَعنَى سَرَقَ

  • سَرَقَ : He stole
  • سَرَقَ و استَرَقَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى
  • سَررَقَ, يَسرِقُ فَهُوَ مِنَ البَابِ الثَّانِي
  • استَرَقَ السَّمعَ, بِمَعنَى سَرَقَهُ
  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 إِلَّا مَنِ اسْتَرَقَ السَّمْعَ فَأَتْبَعَهُ شِهَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

Except him (devil) that gains hearing by stealing, he is pursued by a clear flaming fire. [15:18]

اِلتَحَقَ, بِمَعنَى لَحِقَ

  • لَحِقَ : He followed
  • لَحِقَ و التَحَقَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى
  • لَحِقَ, يَلحَقُ فَهُوَ مِن بَابِ عَلِمَ

اِمتَلَكَ, بِمَعنَى مَلَكَ

  • مَلَكَ : He owned /possessed
  • مَلَكَ, يَملِكُ وهُو مِن البَابِ الثَّانِي
  • امتَلَكَتْ هِندٌ عِقدًا, بِمَعنَى مَلَكَتْهُ   Hind possessed/owned a neckless, meaning she possessed/owned it
  • ـه is referring to  عِقد and it is مُذَكَّر and that is why it is not هَا
  • You can say هِندُ or  هِندٌ
  • مَلَكَ و امتَلكَ بِنَفسِ المَعنَى

اِمتَدَحَ, بِمَعنَى مَدَحَ

  • اِمتَدَحتُ زَيدًا, بِمَعنَى مَدَحتُهُ
  • مَدَحَ : He praised

اِرتَقَى زَيدٌ الجِدَارَ, بِمَعنَى رَقِيَه

  • رَقِيَ : He climbed

اِمتَصَّ البَعُوضُ الدَّمَ , بِمَعنَى مَصَّهُ

  • مَصَّ : He sucked
  • البَعُوض : The musquito
  • الدَّم : The blood – And it was given a fathah because it is a مَفعُول

Third Meaning of this Chapter: الإِغنَاءُ عَنِ المُجَرَّدِ

الإِغنَاءُ is the opposite of  المُوَافَقَة

  • المُوَافَقَةis that the مَزِيد has the same meaning as its مجَرَّد, but in  الإِغنَاءُ the مَزِيد does not have the same meaning as the مُجَرَّد

اِلتَمَسَ : He sought

  • If we were to undress this verb from the extra letters we would end up with  لَمَسَ , because the extra letters are the ‘alif’ in the beginning and the ‘taa’ after faa-ul kalimah –  And لَمَسَ has another meaning, which means: He touched
  • اِلتَمَسَ لَيسَ بِمَعنَى لَمَسَ

اِستلَمَ : He received

  • If we were to undress this verb from the extra letters we would end up with  سَلِمَ , which means: He was free/saved
  • اِستلَمَ عَلَى وَزنِ اِفتَعَلَ

 

Chapter 3

بَابُ الافعِلاَل

اِفعَلَّ , يَفعَلُّ, اِفعِلَالاً

The meaning which belongs to this Chapter is:  المُبَالَغَةُ فِي الأَلوَانِ والعُيوُب

يَأتِي لِمَعنًا وَاحِدًا وَهُوَ المُبَالَغَةُ فِي الأَلوَانِ والعُيوُب

تَبيَضًّ, تَسوَدُّ

  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَتَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْوَدَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ أَكَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ

On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will become white and some faces will become black; as for those whose faces will become black (to them will be said): “Did you reject Faith after accepting it? Then taste the torment (in Hell) for rejecting Faith.” [3:106]

  • تَبيَضُّ is the  مُضَارِع of  اِبيَضَّ
  • تَسوَدُّ is the  مُضَارِع of  اِسوَدَّ
  • اِسوِدَادًا وابيِضَاضًا

اِحوَلَّ : He became cross eyed

Chapter 4

بَابُ التَّفَاعُل

تَفَاعَلَ , يَتَفَاعَلُ, اتَفَاعُلاً

The First meaning التَّشَارُك ‘The Sharing

Here it is sharing both grammatically and meaning wise – and it is unlike فَاعَلَ where the action has been referred only to one side with it indicating that the other side also participated (and this is the difference between the two)

  • التَّشَارُك is different than  المُشَارَكَ

تَصَارَعَ الرَّجُلاَنِ : The two man wrestled

تَقَاتَلَ النَّاسُ : The people fought (against each other)

تَوَاعَدَ الزَّمِيلاَنِ : The two friends/companions/colleague met

  • قال الله سبحانه وتعالى

 إذْ أَنتُم بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُم بِالْعُدْوَةِ الْقُصْوَىٰ وَالرَّكْبُ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ اللَّـهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَىٰ مَنْ حَيَّ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on the ground lower than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment, but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge); so that those who were to be destroyed (for their rejecting the Faith) might be destroyed after a clear evidence, and those who were to live (i.e. believers) might live after a clear evidence. And surely, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.[8:42]

  • In this verse you have the Maadhee and the Mudaari’ of a verb  هَلَكَ, يَهلِكُ مِن بَابِ جَلَسَ

The second meaning التَّظَاهُر The pretending

تَكَاسَلَ : He pretended to be lazy

تَعَامَى : He pretended to be blind

تَغَابَى : He pretended to be dumb

تَجَاهَلَ: He pretended not to know

تَنَاسَى : He pretended to forget

تَغَافَل : He pretended to be heedless

‘showing you are something that you are not’

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Naseehah

Everything comes step by step, no need to rush. Whoever rushed and hastened before its time will be tasted with losing it  ‘ مَنِ استَعجَلَ الشَّيءُ قَبلَ أَوانِه عُوقِبَ بِحِرمَانِه’ this is a juristic principle, which says:  ‘Whoever hastens something before its time, will be punished by being prevented from it’

That is why you see people in the beginning of the courses, who ask, ‘when will we finish?’ End up leaving.

فَلاَ تَستَعجِلُوا أيُّهَا الإخوَةُ والأًخَوَات, فَإِنَّ العَجَلَةَ مِنَ الشَّيطَانِ  ‘So don’t hasten O brothers and sisters, because hastiness is from the devil.’

وَقَالَ الشَّاعِرُ: قَد يُدرِكُ المُتَأنِّي بَعضَ حَاجَتِهِ وَقَد يَكُونُ مَعَ المُستَعجِلِ الزَّلَلُ  , which means: The poet said: ‘The unhurried could/may reach to some of his needs, and in most cases error will be with he who is hasty’

  • المُتَأنِّي : Is one who doesn’t rush (unhurried), the opposite of المُستَعجِلِ
  • يُدرِك مِن أدرَكَ, يُدرِكُ, اِدرَاكَ  : Reaching
  • الزَّلَل is error  الخَطَأ

That is why  you see people learning how to speak cause they can’t wait, but miss out on a lot of principle. That is why you see them falling into mistakes when speaking, sooner or later, because they missed the principle. They still notice and recognize a lot of things missing but when they learn the principles (of for example sarf and nahw), everything adds up and they are satisfied.

Whoever did not know the ten concepts of subjects before learning them they say ‘ خَبَطَ خَبْطَ عَشوَاء’  – ‘he did not walk straight he will fall right and left’

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Sarf level 2- 36-1

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