Establishing the Principles: Monotheism – Book 1- Class 10

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

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In the previous class we explained Al-Haneef and Al-Hanifiyyah and several issues about the religion of Islaam and how it is related to other religions.  In brief,  we said before that Islaam is the religion of all Prophets.  Because Islaam has two meanings:

  1. General meaning: Surrendering to Allaah by worshipping Him Alone.
  2. Specific meaning: Surrendering to the last religion which Mohammad Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasaalam came with and Allaah was pleased with.

(From another aspects Islaam has two meanings as well which we will take later.)

We mentioned many verses in which Allaah spoke about Prophets who came before Mohammad Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasaalam calling their people to Islaam. As in Soorah 10 verse 84:

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَـٰقَومِ إِن كُنتُم ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ فَعَلَيهِ تَوَكَّلُوٓاْ إِن كُنتُم مُّسلِمِينَ

And Musa (Moses) said: “O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims (those who submit to Allah’s Will).”

Allaah said in Soorah 3 verses from 67-68:

مَا كَانَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمُ يَہُودِيًّ۬ا وَلَا نَصۡرَانِيًّ۬ا وَلَـٰكِن كَانَ حَنِيفً۬ا مُّسۡلِمً۬ا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ (٦٧) إِنَّ أَوۡلَى ٱلنَّاسِ بِإِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَـٰذَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

 Ibrahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism – to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikun.  (68)  Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim (Abraham) are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.

Allah said in Soorah 31 verse 22:

وَمَن يُسۡلِمۡ وَجۡهَهُ ۥۤ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ۬ فَقَدِ ٱسۡتَمۡسَكَ بِٱلۡعُرۡوَةِ ٱلۡوُثۡقَىٰ‌ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡأُمُورِ

“ And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allah [i.e.(follows Allah’s Religion of Islamic Monotheism), worships Allah (Alone) with sincere Faith in the (1) Oneness of His Lordship,(2) Oneness of His worship, and (3) Oneness of His Names and Qualities], while he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allah’s sake without any show-off or to gain praise or fame etc. and does them in accordance with the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad  ), then he has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold [La ilaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah)]. And to Allah return all matters for decision.

Yuslim” (submits) is taken from the word Islaam. There are many many verses in the Qur’aan.  Allah also said in Soorah Yunus verse 71 and 72 that Nuuh said to his people:

 وَٱتۡلُ عَلَيۡہِمۡ نَبَأَ نُوحٍ إِذۡ قَالَ لِقَوۡمِهِۦ يَـٰقَوۡمِ إِن كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيۡكُم مَّقَامِى وَتَذۡكِيرِى بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ فَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ تَوَڪَّلۡتُ فَأَجۡمِعُوٓاْ أَمۡرَكُمۡ وَشُرَكَآءَكُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُنۡ أَمۡرُكُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غُمَّةً۬ ثُمَّ ٱقۡضُوٓاْ إِلَىَّ وَلَا تُنظِرُونِ (٧١) فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَمَا سَأَلۡتُكُم مِّنۡ أَجۡرٍ‌ۖ إِنۡ أَجۡرِىَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَأُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

And recite to them the news of Nuh (Noah). When he said to his people: “O my people, if my stay (with you), and my reminding (you) of the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah is hard on you, then I put my trust in Allah. So devise your plot, you and your partners, and let not your plot be in doubt for you. Then pass your sentence on me and give me no respite. (71) But if you turn away [from accepting my doctrine of Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah], then no reward have I asked of you, my reward is only from Allah, and I have been commanded to be one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah’s Will).”

Submitting oneself to Allaah is the religion of Islaam,  but when the religions were changed,  Allaah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’Aalaa  sealed all religions by the Book which He has revealed down to Prophet Mohammad Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasaalam.   That is why Allaah said in Soorah 5 verse 48:

وَأَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقً۬ا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ مِنَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ وَمُهَيۡمِنًا عَلَيۡهِ‌ۖ 

And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad ) the Book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan  (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures) …”

 Qur’aan over-ruled every book which came before it.   And that is why Allaah Subhaanahu wa ta’Aalaa said in Soorah 3 verse 85:

وَمَن يَبۡتَغِ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡإِسۡلَـٰمِ دِينً۬ا فَلَن يُقۡبَلَ مِنۡهُ وَهُوَ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ مِنَ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ

“And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.

By the coming of Mohammad Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasaalam,  Islaam is only following him that is why the Prophet said, If Musa was alive he wouldn’t help but following me,”

and when ‘Eesa will come down again, so he can meet his fate on this earth he will be judging according to Mohammads Shari’ah –  according to the Legislation of Muhammad- Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam.  So following the prophets at their time is the general meaning of Islaam … following Eesaa at the time of Eesaa is Islaam and following Moosaa at the time of Moosaa is Islaam and following Nuuh at the time of Nuuh is Islaam…

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اعْلَمْ أَرْشَدَكَ اللَّهُ لِطَاعَتِهِ

I`lam Ar-sha-da-kallahu li-taa`a-ti-hi,
Know may Allah guide you to His obedience,

أَنَّ الْحَنِيفِيَّةَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

Annal-haneefiyyata, millata Ibraaheem: 
that Haneefiyyah, the religion of Ibraaheem is:

أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ، وَحْدَهُ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ

An ta`budallaha wah-da-hu mukh-li-sal la-hud-deen
That you worship Allah alone making the religion sincerely for Him

  • مُخْلِصًا is a state of this worship that it should be given and directed only to Allaah.

What is meant from Al-Ikhlaas are two things:

  • 1-That one doesn’t direct his worship to other than Allaah. Example: As-Sujood is an act of worship. We achieve Ikhlaas with this act of worship by giving it only to Allaah. Because Allah said in Soorah Az-Zumar 39 verse 11-14:

قُلۡ إِنِّىٓ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ مُخۡلِصً۬ا لَّهُ ٱلدِّينَ (١١) وَأُمِرۡتُ لِأَنۡ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ (١٢) قُلۡ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ إِنۡ عَصَيۡتُ رَبِّى عَذَابَ يَوۡمٍ عَظِيمٍ۬ (١٣) قُلِ ٱللَّهَ أَعۡبُدُ مُخۡلِصً۬ا لَّهُ ۥ دِينِى

Say (O Muhammad): “Verily, I am commanded to worship Allah (Alone) by obeying Him and doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah’s sake only and not to show off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship;” (12)  “And I am commanded (this) in order that I may be the first of those who submit themselves to Allah (in Islam) as Muslims.”(13)   Say (O Muhammad  ): “Verily, if I disobey my Lord, I am afraid of the torment of a great Day.”(14)  Say (O Muhammad  ) “Allah Alone I worship by doing religious deeds sincerely for His sake only and not to show-off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship.”

And once this act of worship is directed to other than Allah then this is polytheism. But this doesn’t stop here because one might direct worship to Allaah but wanting other than the face of Allaah. Example : If one faces the Qiblah and prays so he is giving this act of worship to Allaah. But this person who has faced the Qiblah in Masjid where people can see him so he is not always wanting to please Allaah. This means the intention of anyone who prays where people can see is not always for the sake of Allah but intentions differ from one person to another. And that’s why this first point is not enough until the second point is added to it.

  • 2 -That he doesn’t want out of this act of worship, except pleasing Allaah.

The first isn’t enough not until the second is added to it. The Scholars said so based upon this :

  • Whoever doesn’t follow the first falls into Major Polytheism.
  • Whoever doesn’t follow the second-even if he follows the first- will fall into minor polytheism.

What is Polytheism (Ash’Shirk)?

Linguistically: It is equaling.

Technically: equaling other than Allaah with Him, in something only He could do, or in something exclusively His.  And the proof about this meaning is the saying of Allaah in Soorah 6 verse 1:

ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَجَعَلَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ وَٱلنُّورَ‌ۖ ثُمَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّہِمۡ يَعۡدِلُونَ

“All praises and thanks be to Allah, Who (Alone) created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light, yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.”

This equaling is specified in a particular thing. In something only Allah could do or is exclusively His. Like example, referring the act of speaking to both Allaah and His creation. This is an equaling in reference, meaning if we say that Allaah’s speaks and then we say that his creation speaks. Here in reference we equal Allah to other than Allaah. Meaning, referring the same act to Him and His creation because both have the same attribute of speaking. But if we say that the creation of Allaah speaks like Allah does then here this is Shirk. This is the difference so not every equaling is polytheism. Like asking for help in could be asked from Allaah and from His creation. And this is an equaling in the sense that both things are asked Allaah and other than Allaah and this is not Shirk. Because Shirk is only when you equal something with Allah in something that only Allah could do. So it depends what is asked like offspring and I ask it from other than Allaah then this is Shirk. Here the asking itself is not Shirk but the asking of offspring from let’s say pious man is Shirk.

This Shirk (Polytheism) is of two types:

  1. Major Shirk
  2. Minor Shirk

Because what was narrated by the authority of Mahmood ibn-ul-Labeed that the Prophet –  Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam said: “The most of which I fear for you is the minor polytheism” then he was asked of it( meaning of what it was?). So he said Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasaalam, “ Showing off”.

The point of this Hadeeth or statement is that he Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam said, “Minor Polytheism,”  so this proves that there is a Major one as well.  According to what we have mentioned in the definition of ash-Shirk we can understand that, we can only prove an act to be an act of polytheism (shirk) after two things:

  1. The equaling of other than Allaah with Him ( but this isn’t enough as said before).
  2. And that equaling has to be in something exclusively Allaah’s.

The dangers of Shirk (Polytheism) and the comparison between major and minor:

  • Major takes you out of the fold of Islaam, whereas the minor doesn’t.  Proof of this is the saying of Allaah in Soorah 23 verse 117:

وَمَن يَدۡعُ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَـٰهًا ءَاخَرَ لَا بُرۡهَـٰنَ لَهُ ۥ بِهِۦ فَإِنَّمَا حِسَابُهُ ۥ عِندَ رَبِّهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرُونَ

 And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allah, any other ilah (god), of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely! Al-Kafirun (the disbelievers in Allah and in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, pagans, idolaters, etc.) will not be successful.

And Allah said in Soorah 39 verse 3:

أَلَا لِلَّهِ ٱلدِّينُ ٱلۡخَالِصُ‌ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مَا نَعۡبُدُهُمۡ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ زُلۡفَىٰٓ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَهُمۡ فِى مَا هُمۡ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِى مَنۡ هُوَ كَـٰذِبٌ۬ ڪَفَّارٌ۬

“.. And those who take Auliya’ (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): “We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.”

  • Major makes you dwell forever in the hell-fire, whereas the minor doesn’t.

As Allaah said in Soorah 2 verse 165-167:

وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَندَادً۬ا يُحِبُّونَہُمۡ كَحُبِّ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَشَدُّ حُبًّ۬ا لِّلَّهِ‌ۗ وَلَوۡ يَرَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓاْ إِذۡ يَرَوۡنَ ٱلۡعَذَابَ أَنَّ ٱلۡقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعً۬ا وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعَذَابِ (١٦٥) إِذۡ تَبَرَّأَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتۡ بِهِمُ ٱلۡأَسۡبَابُ (١٦٦) وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُواْ لَوۡ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً۬ فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنۡہُمۡ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُواْ مِنَّا‌ۗ كَذَٲلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ حَسَرَٲتٍ عَلَيۡہِمۡ‌ۖ وَمَا هُم بِخَـٰرِجِينَ مِنَ ٱل

 And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is Severe in punishment.  (166)  When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them.  (167)  And those who followed will say: “If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us.” Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire .

  • Major nullifies all deeds whereas the minor only nullifies the deeds it fill in.

And the proof is the saying of Allaah in Soorah 2 verse 217:

يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلشَّہۡرِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ۬ فِيهِ‌ۖ قُلۡ قِتَالٌ۬ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ۬‌ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَڪُفۡرُۢ بِهِۦ وَٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَإِخۡرَاجُ أَهۡلِهِۦ مِنۡهُ أَكۡبَرُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَٱلۡفِتۡنَةُ أَڪۡبَرُ مِنَ ٱلۡقَتۡلِ‌ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَـٰتِلُونَكُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمۡ عَن دِينِڪُمۡ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَـٰعُواْ‌ۚ وَمَن يَرۡتَدِدۡ مِنكُمۡ عَن دِينِهِۦ فَيَمُتۡ وَهُوَ ڪَافِرٌ۬ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.

So if someone repents from Shirk before death then his deeds will come back whereas if he dies upon Shirk his deeds get lost.  And Allah said Soorah 6 verse 88:

ذَٲلِكَ هُدَى ٱللَّهِ يَہۡدِى بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦ‌ۚ وَلَوۡ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

… But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.

And Allah said in Soorah 14 verse 18:

مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّهِمۡ‌ۖ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ كَرَمَادٍ ٱشۡتَدَّتۡ بِهِ ٱلرِّيحُ فِى يَوۡمٍ عَاصِفٍ۬‌ۖ لَّا يَقۡدِرُونَ مِمَّا ڪَسَبُواْ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ هُوَ ٱلضَّلَـٰلُ ٱلۡبَعِيدُ

The parable of those who disbelieve in their Lord is that their works are as ashes, on which the wind blows furiously on a stormy day, they shall not be able to get aught of what they have earned. That is the straying, far away (from the Right Path).

~ End of Dars ~

Alhamdulillaahi Rabbil-`Aalameen wassalaatu wasalaam alaa Muhammadin Ameen.

Notes transcribed by: Ummo Zakariyyah

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4P 10.1

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