Establishi​ng the Principles – Principles of Understand​ing – Book 1 – Class 18

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

DETAILED NOTES >>>

The author said:

UF 18.1

20 – And most of the important rulings: have all “four sources of evidences” gathered in proving them.

21 – To it points the texts of the Quran and the Sunnah (whatever is recorded of the doings of the Prophet -Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam, or his sayings or his approvals).

22 – And the scholars agree upon them (those important rulings).

23 – And to it points out also the correct analogy.

24 – Because of what it includes of benefits and advantages if it was something ordered or because of what it includes of harmful consequences if it was something forbidden.

25 – And only a little rulings: the scholars differ in, and the closest of scholars to the truth to those issues to which the scholars differed, is he who properly took it back to those “four sources”.

UF 18.3

A Chapter Regarding The Quran And The Sunnah

26 – As the for the book

–          It is this great Quran, the words of the Lord of the Worlds.

–          Which the trustworthy Ruh (Gabriel) has brought down, upon the heart of Muhammed (sallahu a’layhi wassalam).

–          That he may be (one) of the warners), in the plain Arabic language, for all people, this Quran covers the ruling for everything.

–          This Quran is what is read by the tongues, and what is written in the books, and the one kept preserved in the chests.

–          “Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah).(41:42)”

Explanation of the authors sayings:

The Shaykh means that most of the important rulings have all four sources of evidence proving them –  he didnt talk about if it is enought to have one of them proving a certain ruling but he is making the point that most of the important rulings have all four evidences proving them together.  For example the rulings on As – salaah, Az-zakaah, Good treatment to parents, they have all four rulings proving them …  good treatment to parents was proven by Qur’aan and Sunnah and Ijmaa and Qiyaas.  Notice the Shaykh did not say “MUST” have all four evidences proving them.  Which brings us to another issue:

Is it permissible to use Qiyaas when the Quran and Sunnah already prove a ruling?

The scholars said that yes it is permissible from the aspect of increasing the number of proofs proving this ruling.  Basically what we need to prove a certain ruling is Al-Qur’aan and As-Sunah.   We cannot prove a ruling depending on just the Qur’aan because we have to (in order to prove a ruling correctly), to understand this order that has been mentioned in the Quran as it should be understood because the Sunnah is the clarification of this Quran.  In order to understand correctly and derive the Rulings properly, we have to take from the Quran by the guidance of the Sunnah –  (and Al Ijmaa` also)  If an issue is proven by Quran and Sunnah and Al Ijmaa’ also, then it is permissible to mention how Qiyaas proves it.

Explanation of the Authors saying: Because of what it includes of benefits and advantages if it was something ordered or because of what it includes of harmful consequences if it was something forbidden.

This statement leads us to what was mentioned previously. As the author mentioned the whole Islamic Shari’ah is based upon gaining and obtaining our advantages and warding off the disadvantages.

Allah said (17:7) –

إِنْ أَحْسَنتُمْ أَحْسَنتُمْ لِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَسَأْتُمْ فَلَهَا ۚ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ لِيَسُوءُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَلِيَدْخُلُوا الْمَسْجِدَ كَمَا دَخَلُوهُ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَلِيُتَبِّرُوا مَا عَلَوْا تَتْبِيرًا

(And We said): “If you do good, you do good for your ownselves, and if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves.” Then, when the second promise came to pass, (We permitted your enemies) to make your faces sorrowful and to enter the mosque (of Jerusalem) as they had entered it before, and to destroy with utter destruction all that fell in their hands.

–          So Allah did not create us to benefit from us.

Allah said (51:56-58) –

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

مَا أُرِيدُ مِنْهُم مِّن رِّزْقٍ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَن يُطْعِمُونِ

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone).

I seek not any provision from them (i.e. provision for themselves or for My creatures) nor do I ask that they should feed Me (i.e. feed themselves or My creatures).

Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.

Allah said (14:8) –

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ إِن تَكْفُرُوا أَنتُمْ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَغَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ

And Musa (Moses) said: “If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily! Allah is Rich (Free of all wants), Owner of all Praise.”

Therefore Islaam is based on benefitting the slave and everything which is in his advantage.

 

Explanation of the Authors saying:  And only a little rulings: the scholars differ in, and the closest of scholars to the truth to those issues to which the scholars differed, is he who properly took it back to those “four sources”.

The scholar brings our attention to something very important:

He said “yes” there are many ruling that bring about a matter of dispute but this dispute is quickly resolved.

How? Because most of the rulings which most of the scholars differ in, the answer lies in the Quran and the Sunnah but it is as only who is more knowledgeable to reach to the truth.  So the deeper the scholar is in the Quran and the Sunnah the quicker he will reach to the truth and what is correct in those rulings that are deferred in.

That’s why Ash – Shafi’ee (Rahimahullah) said:

“It is rare to find something they (scholars) have differed in except we would find present with us proof from the book of Allah or the Sunnah of the prophet or the Qiyaas which is based on them or one of them.”

So the scholars differ only in little matters when compared to what they agree upon, if you go back to their (scholars) Fataawa you would find as if it’s a number of bodies with one mind / heart / soul.

This magnifies the importance of Ilm- ul-Usool. Three quarters of the Usool is based upon the Arabic language meaning that most of the principles which we would come across are (Insha’Allah) principles taken from the Arabic language. This is why the one who is well-versed in Arabic he will find the ruling and know what is the truth in most of what the scholars differed in and the one who doesn’t know Arabic you will see him not walking straight, banging from wall to wall and at some cases you will find him saying weird things the scholars haven’t said.

A condition to extract the rulings from the Quran and Sunnah is knowing al Usool and this is agreed upon.

Therefore there is much differing because there is less scholars and there are less people of knowledgeable of the principles.

Sheikh Saleh al Fowzaan (hafidahuAllah) when giving a lecture about (The Scholars And Their Merit) cried because of what we are experiencing now and living in of the few number of the firmly grounded scholars and so many people speaking without knowledge.

And if An-Nawawi said in his time (700 years ago):

 

اعلم أن هذا الباب أعني باب الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر قد ضيع أكثره من أزمان متطاولة ، ولم يبق منه في هذه الأزمان إلا رسوم قليلة جدا

“Know: that enjoining good and forbidding evil was neglected for many ages now and it is not left of it (in those days) except a little.”

So what about now?

One of the pious predecessors was sitting with Rabi’ah and they were discussing together matters of knowledge. So they were discussing and issue and they and they agreed upon a certain ruling, regarding it. Then one of the people who were sitting down said: “people are not acting upon this nowadays.” (He was objecting by saying that people aren’t acting by this). So he said to him: “do you reckon that the ignorant people spread and increase in number until they have the authority? Are they going to be evidence against the Sunnah?” (This means, are we going to use them to bombard the Sunnah just because they aren’t acting upon it?). {This is during the first ages after the prophet (sallahu a’layhi wassalam)}.

Imam Ash-Shawkaani (rahimahullahuta’la) (one of the great scholars who died about 300 years ago) said in the introduction of his book when he mentioned the methodology he was going to follow in his book in choosing a ruling over the other: “this book follows the evidence even if it went against the majority.”

The Prophet said:

بَدَأَ الإِسْلامُ غَرِيبًا ، وَسَيَعُودُ كَمَا بَدَأَ غَرِيبًا ، فَطُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاءِ

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Islam began as a stranger and it will return to being a stranger, so blessed are the strangers.”  [Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Number 270]

So if you are upon the truth be firm upon it no matter what people say, follow the truth.

The proof for (and the closest of scholars to the truth to those issues to which the scholars differed, is he who properly took it back to those “four sources”.):

Allah said in (4:59):

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّـهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.

Allah said in (4:60-65):

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّـهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا

أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللَّـهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُل لَّهُمْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّـهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّـهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

Have you seen those (hyprocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Taghut (false judges, etc.) while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaitan (Satan) wishes to lead them far astray.

And when it is said to them: “Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger (Muhammad SAW),” you (Muhammad) see the hypocrites turn away from you (Muhammad) with aversion.

How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth, they come to you swearing by Allah, “We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”

They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts; so turn aside from them (do not punish them) but admonish them, and speak to them an effective word (i.e. to believe in Allah, worship Him, obey Him, and be afraid of Him) to reach their innerselves.

We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah’s Leave. If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you (Muhammad) and begged Allah’s Forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them: indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving (One Who accepts repentance), Most Merciful.

But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.

~~~~~

Explanation of the Authors saying:

26 – As the for the book

–          It is this great Quran, the words of the Lord of the Worlds.

–          Which the trustworthy Ruh (Gabriel) has brought down, upon the heart of Muhammed (sallahu a’layhi wassalam).

–          That he may be (one) of the warners), in the plain Arabic language, for all people, this Quran covers the ruling for everything.

–          This Quran is what is read by the tongues, and what is written in the books, and the one kept preserved in the chests.

–          “Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah).(41:42)”

 

  • The author took this from (26:192-195):

وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ  عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُّبِينٍ

And truly, this (the Quran) is a revelation from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists), Which the trustworthy Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] has brought down; Upon your heart (O Muhammad) that you may be (one) of the warners,)In the plain Arabic language.

  • The Author also took the rest of the verses from (34:28):

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا كَافَّةً لِّلنَّاسِ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) except as a giver of glad tidings and

a warner to all mankind, but most of men know not.

  • Allah said in (42:10):

وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّـهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّـهُ رَبِّي عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ

And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah (He is the ruling Judge). (And say O Muhammad to these polytheists:) Such is Allah, my Lord in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in all of my affairs and in repentance.

Explanation of the authors saying: “this Quran covers the ruling for everything.”

The Quran covers everything whether:

  1. It be rulings of Aqeedah or creed.
  2. It be rulings concerned with manners, morality, acts of the heart and improving yourself and being a better Muslim.
  3. It includes practical rulings (i.e. the rulings that have to do with practice/action of the limbs.)

The practical rulings include two things:

  1. Rulings to rituals (al-I’baadaath).
  2. Rulings of financial dealings and dealings between people. (i.e. trade)

Explanation of the Authors saying: This Quran is what is read by the tongues, and what is written in the books, and the one kept preserved in the chests.

The author is trying to tell that whoever read it and however it is read it is called the Quran and just because is it written on paper that doesn’t mean it isn’t the word of Allah.

When he says its kept preserved in the chest he means that it is memorized.

So the author means here that whether it is read, written and memorized it is all called the Quran (word of Allah).

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله  ~~~  ~~~

Notes transcribed by: zaiba binth shuraiz jawward hashim

Screen Shots >>>

UF 18.2

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