Sarf – Level 2 – Class 30

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

The transcriber apologizes for the delay in posting these notes which are of the last class before the revision.

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In the previous class, Ustaadh explained the first meaning to chapter one of  الثُّلاَثِيُّ المَزِيدُ بِثَلاَثَةِ أَحرُفٍ 

and it is:

  1. الطَّلَبُ (asking/seeking).   Ustaadh brought many examples of verbs especially  on this meaning because it is the most common meaning.  And one of those examples was:
  • Asking for الخِيَرَةُ  – which is choice.

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Ustaadh shed more light on this meaning as it is an important meaning in our life which is  الاستَخَارَة    It means you are asking Allaah to choose for you.  This is Al-Istikhaarah and it is a great matter –  Whoever wanted to do something without regretting it, then let him pray Istikhaarah.

  • استَخَارَ (Istakhaara) means that he asked Allaah to choose for him
  • And if you asked Allaah to choose for you then you will never regret what you have chosen because you know that  Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa has chosen this for you.

More verbs on this first meaning

  • Asking for  الشُّورَى  which is consultation.

He asked for consultation is (Istashaara): استشار (it was originally “Istashwara”)

  • Asking for  الفَهم  which is understanding.

He asked for understanding is (istafhama):  استفهم

  

هذا هو المعنى الأول

~~~~~

The Second Meaning 

 ننتقل إلى المعنى الثاني (We move to the second meaning) and it is:

2.   الْمُصَادَفَة – finding someone on a certain attribute or description – a coincidence.  Examples:

  •   كَرُمَ  which means, “he was generous.”

If you want to say that you happened to find so-and-so a generous person you say (Istakramatu Zaydaan):  استكرمت زيدا “I found Zayd to be a generous person”

  •   عَظُمَ  which means, “he/it was great.”

You say (Ista`thamtu) :استعظمتُ meaning, “I found him/it great.”

Or for example if you say to your sister in Islaam about your shaykhah/teacher whom you find to be upon great knowledge: استعظمتُهَا

~~~~~

The Third Meaning

3. الْمُطَاوَعة And here it is الْمُطَاوَعة لِأَفْعَلَ (the Mutawaa`ah to Af`al).

For example:  How do we say,   “He set up something straight.” ?  We say,   أقَامَه And if you set something up straight, what will happen to that thing which you set up straight?  It becomes straight –   So doesn’t that mean that it responded to the action of whoever set it up straight?  This is الْمطاوعة -It is the receiver being responsive to your action or accepting the affect of your action.

A student requested clarification regarding al-Mutaawa`ah

How do you say:  “I broke it.”  You say, كسرته Now if the thing that you struck was responsive to your strike and it broke, then this is الْمطاوعة

Or How do you say, “I opened.”?  You say, فَتَحْتُهُ   Your action is your opening it. and it opening is it accepting your action.  this is الْمطاوعة .

Now, what is الْمطاوِع and الْمطاوِع ? الْمطاوَع is the thing accepting the act  and الْمطاوَع is the thing  accepted.

 

  •   أَقامه , which means:  “he straightened it, set it upright.”

The   مطاوِع  of it comes on the scale of –  استَقام .  And  َأَقامه فاستقام means, “He straightened it up  (this is the act – the mutaawa`- it is always muta`addin), so it straightened up (this is the accepting of that act – the mutaawi` –  it is always laazim).”   (Both the mutaawa` and the mutaawi` are verbs).   We  don’t say: “fa istaqaama but rather, fastaqaama because the alif at the beginning of istaqaama is hamzatul-wasl and is not pronounced when it joins letters together.

  • أَحْكَمْتُه   It is on the scale of  أَحْكَمَ  ) أَفْعَلَ ) – which means “fastened”    أَحْكَمْتُهُ means, “I fastened it.”   

So we say  أَحْكَمْتُهُ فَاستَحْكَامَ   “I fastened it so it got fastened.”

  •  أَبَنْتُه  which means, “I clarified it”. It is from أَبَان , but here (abantuhu) the alif was droppped because the noon was silenced (this due to the meeting of two sukoons).

So we say,  أَبَنْتُهُ فَاسْتَبَانَ   “I clarified it so it was made clear.”

~~~~~

Today will mark the completion of the verbs –  then a revision, and after that:  How to conjugate the amr –  how to turn the mudhaari’ into an amr (order)  for 3,4,5, and 6 letter verbs.

Every Verb that is used for mutawaa` is always Laazim –  it is apparent from how it sounds (it became set up right, it became fastened, it became clear…) that it is laazim –  not muta`addee.

If the hamzatul wasl was joining speech (joining words) it is as if it isn’t there –  we don’t pronounce it –  ignore it completely.  when it is at the beginning we pronounce it but when it is between words it is dropped in pronunciation

The Fourth Meaning

4 التَّحَوَّل– transforming –  and we will have one example which is the common example:

  • استحجر الظين (Istahjarat-Teenu) which means, “the clay hardened” (became like a rock – rock hard)

The Fifth Meaning

المُبَالغة– emphasize … it takes the same meanng as the thulaathiyy but it shows emphasis. For example:

  • استقرَّ  when you can say:قرَّ   which means “settled down”  so when you say “istaqarra” it means that it really settled down.  (emphasis is added).
  • استغنى when you can say:غَنِيَ  – And this has been previously clarified: Istaghnaa is when you are not in need of something  as in Istaghnaa `anhu, and as it is said in the Quran:  أَن رَّءَاهُ ٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰٓ  (Because he considers himself self-sufficient. – 96/8). But you can also say ghaniyy … as in: فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ  (…then Allâh stands not in need of any of the ‘Alamîn -3/97).
  • استيأس when you can say: يئس which means “he gave up”

This meaning can also be from the four letter verb as it is from the three letter verb as shown above.  For example:

  • The four letter verb أجاب which means “he answered/responded/gave a reply” can be brought on this scale for emphasis: استجاب
  • The four letter verb أيقن which means “he was certain” – it can be brought on this scale for emphasis: استيقن

It could be used to show emphasis with a five letter verb as well:

  • The five letter verb تكبّر which means “he puffed himself up with pride –  was arrogant” can be brought on this scale for emphasis: استكبر
  • The five letter verb تثبَّت which means “he verified” – it can be brought on this scale for emphasis: استثْبَتَ
  • And like this is تبين which means “he clarified” – it can be brought on this scale: استبانس

And this five letter verb which the six letter verb is emphasizing does not have to be from one chapter – it can be from multiple chapters. like:

  •  اعتصم which is on the scale of افتعلا –  it means “refused” and it could also mean “held onto” but here we want the meaning of “refused” … so when you want to emphasize it you say:استعصم like iin the saying of Allaah Ta’Aalaa: وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ فَاسْتَعْصَمَ  (And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly refused;- 12/32)

The Sixth Meaning

6. الْإغناء (the meaning is independent from the mujarrad verb from which it is derived)  For example:

  • استقل , which means: “he was independent”

The Seventh Meaning

7. اختصار حكايةالمركب which is summarizing for example:

  • استرجع , which  means “he said Inna lillaahi wainna ilayhi raji’oon”

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

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s2 30.2

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