Sarf – Level 2 – Class 32

Notes >>>

 

الفعل الأمر is of two types:

1)      If there is no hamzah in the beginning, which is of two types:

A-     That the letter after the letter of the Mudaara’ah is silent

B-      If the letter after the letter of the Mudaara’ah is mutaharrik

  • The hamzah which is meant in the beginning is هَمزَةُ قَطع   and not  هَمزَةُ وَصل

 

The steps of these type of verbs is to change it from the Mudaari’ to the Amr:

From يَركَعُ to  اِركَعْ

1st: You drop the letter of the Mudaara’ah  يَركَعُ – ي = رْكَعُ

2nd : You replace it with a hamzatu wasl  ارْكَعُ

3rd : You give it a dhammah or a kasrah according to its ‘ayn,  here it gets a kasrah because its ‘ayn has a fathah  اِرْكَع

4th : You silence laamul kalimah اِركَعْ

The Amr is only directed to someone you are speaking to, and not someone you are speaking about, it only includes the مُخَاطَب

So if you want to conjugate the different types or forms of Amr it can only go to the   مُخَاطَب– And we have five forms for the مُخَاطَب, it is either a single male or a single female or two or a group of males or a group of females.

When there is a noon at the end whether it is the noon that comes after the waaw, yaa or the alif you drop it.

 

For a single male:

يَخرُجُ – اُخرُجْ

Here we drop the taa which is the letter of the Mudaara’ah and silence laamul kalimah.

 

For the single female:

تَخرُجِينَ – اُخرُجِي

Here we drop the taa which is the letter of the Mudaara’ah,  and we also drop the noon which is placed at the end of the Mudaari’  (which is the grammatical state of the verb)

1st : You drop the letter of the Mudaara’ah   تَخرُجِينَ – تَ = خْرُجِينَ

2nd : You replace it with a hamzatu wasl  اخرُجِينَ

3rd : You give it a dhammah or a kasrah according to its ‘ayn,  here it gets a dhammah because its ‘ayn has a dhammah  اُخرُجِينَ

4th : You drop the noon at the end of the verb اُخْرُجِي

When there is a noon at the end wethere it is the noon that comes after the waaw, yaa or the alif you drop it.

 

For the dual:

تَخرُجَانِ – اُخرُجا

1st : You drop the taa which is the letter of the Mudaara’ah   تَخرُجَانِ – تَ = خْرُجَانِ

2nd : You replace it with a hamzatu wasl  اخرُجَانِ

3rd : You give it a dhammah or a kasrah according to its ‘ayn,  here it gets a dhammah because its ‘ayn has a dhammah  اُخرُجَانِ

4th : You drop the noon at the end of the verb اُخْرُجَا

 

For the Group:

تَخرُجُونَ – اُخرُجُوا

1st : You drop the taa which is the letter of the Mudaara’ah   تَخرُجُونَ – تَ = خْرُجُونَ

2nd : You replace it with a hamzatu wasl  اخرُجُونَ

3rd : You give it a dhammah or a kasrah according to its ‘ayn,  here it gets a dhammah because its ‘ayn has a dhammah  اخرُجُونَ 

4th : You drop the noon at the end of the verb, and because it is waawul jamaa’ah we place aliful faariqah after it اُخْرُجُوا

 

For the Group of females:

تَخرُجنَ – اُخرُجْنَ

1st : You drop the taa which is the letter of the Mudaara’ah   تَخرُجنَ – تَ = خْرُجْنَ

2nd : You replace it with a hamzatu wasl  اخرُجنَ

3rd : You give it a dhammah or a kasrah according to its ‘ayn,  here it gets a dhammah because its ‘ayn has a dhammah  اُخرُجْنَ

4th : You drop the noon at the end of the verb, and because it is waawul jamaa’ah we place aliful faariqah after it اُخْرُجنَ

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى   said:

 وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّـهَ

 وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا

يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins, etc.) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet ), and to purify you with a thorough purification. [33:33]

 

يَدخُلُ

اُدخُل : Enter! (single male)

اُدخُلِي : Enter! (single female)

اُدخُلاَ : Both of you Enter!

اُدخُلُوا : All of you Enter!

  • As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَلَمَّا دَخَلُوا عَلَىٰ يُوسُفَ آوَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَبَوَيْهِ وَقَالَ ادْخُلُوا مِصْرَ إِن شَاءَ اللَّـهُ آمِنِينَ

Then, when they entered unto Yusuf (Joseph), he betook his parents to himself and said: “Enter Egypt, if Allah wills, in security.” [12:99]

اُدخُلنَ: All of you (females) Enter!

 

يَشرَبُ

اِشرَبْ : Drink! (male)

  • We gave aliful wasl a kasrah, because ‘aynul kalimah is maftooh and not madhmoom – لأنَّ عَينُ الكَلِمَةِ مَفتُوحٌ ولَيس مَضمُومٌ

اِشرَبِي : Drink! (female)

  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ

أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيًّا

“So eat and drink and be glad, and if you see any human being, say: ‘Verily! I have vowed a fast unto the Most Beneficent (Allah) so I shall not speak to any human being this day.'” [19:26]

 

اِشرَبَا : Both of you Drink!

اِشرَبُوا : All of you Drink!

اِشرَبنَ : All of you (females) Drink!

 

Q 1: How do you say: ‘’All of you look!’’ ?  اُنظُرُوا

  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى   said:

 انظُرُوا إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ

Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof…….. [6:99]

 

Q 2: How do you say: “ Open! (to a single female)”?  اِفتَحِي

Q 3: How do you say: ‘’ Both of you Open!’’ ?   اِفتَحَا

Q 4: How do you say : “All of you Open! ” ? اِفتَحُوا

Q 5: How do you say: “All of you (f) Open!” ? اِفتَحنَ

Q 6: How do you say: “ Know! (to a single female)” ? اِعلَمِي

Q 7: How do you say: “Both of you Know!”? اِعلَمَا

Q 8: How do you say: “All of you Know!”? اِعلَمُوا [5:98

  • [5:98]

Q 9: How do you say: “All of you (f) Know!”? اِعلَمنَ

Q 10: How do you say: “You Bow down! (to a single female)” ? اِركَعِي

  • [3:43]

Q 11: How do you say: “Both of you Bow down!”? اِركَعَا

Q 12: How do you say: “All of you Bow down!”? اِركَعُوا

  • [2:43]

Q 13: Take out the Amr of the following verses and give its meaning:

1st verse:

 اذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَأَخُوكَ بِآيَاتِي وَلَا تَنِيَا فِي ذِكْرِي

  • اِذهَبْ: Go!  [20:42]

 

2nd verse:

 وَهِيَ تَجْرِي بِهِمْ فِي مَوْجٍ كَالْجِبَالِ وَنَادَىٰ نُوحٌ ابْنَهُ وَكَانَ فِي مَعْزِلٍ يَا بُنَيَّ ارْكَب مَّعَنَا وَلَا تَكُن مَّعَ الْكَافِرِينَ

 

  • اِركَبْ : Ride!  [11:42]

 

3rd Verse:

 وَقَالَ ارْكَبُوا فِيهَا بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ مَجْرَاهَا وَمُرْسَاهَا إِنَّ رَبِّي لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

  • اِركَبُوا : All of you ride! [11:41]
  • The amr of يَخرُجُ is  اُخرُجْ – and the reason why همزة وصل   has a dhammah is because its ‘ayn has a dhammah
  • It is called  همزة وصل , because it is not pronounced when joined in speech
  • Al Hareeriyy said:  ‘ إذْ ألفُ الوصلِ متى يدرجْ سقطْ ’  ‘Whenever the speech is joined Aliful wasl is dropped’
  • اُنظُرْ : Look!
  • اُترُك : Leave!  [44:24]
  • اِضرِبْ : Hit!  (Here we give it a kasrah, because its ‘ayn is maksoor) [26:63]
  • اِضرِبُوا : You all Hit! [8:112]
  • اِجلِسْ : Sit!
  • اِفتَحْ : Open! [7:89]
  • اِعلَمْ : Know!
  • اِعلَمْ : Listen!
  • اِشرَبْ : Drink!
  • اِركَعْ : Bow down! – As mentioned in a poetry:

‘’ وَارْكَعْ إِذَا اللَّيْلُ دَجَى رُكُوعَ خَوْفٍ وَرَجَا وَعُدَّ فِي سُفْنِ النَّجَا إِلَى الْفَضَاءِ الأَوْسَعِ ’ 

‘And bow down when the night comes……’

  • يا مَريَمُ اركَعِي  : O Maryam bow down!

 

The second case of verbs

B-           If the letter after the letter of the Mudaara’ah is mutaharrik

Then it is the same form after dropping Harful Mudaara’ah.

  • In this case were are not bringing the first chapter which is  أَفعَلَ, يُفعِلُ, إِفعَالاً , because it starts with a hamzah, and that is not of the first type.

 

الفِعلُ المَزِيد

 

المَزِيدُ فِيهِ بِحرفٍ واحِد

 

باب التَّفعِيل  (Chapter two)

فَعَّلَ, يُفَعِّلُ, تَفعِيلًا

This Chapter is of the first type because there is no hamzah in the beginning, and it is of type B, because the letter of the letter of the Mudaara’ah is mutaharrik .

Here to change the Mudaari’ into the Amr is by dropping the letter of the Mudaara’ah and silencing laamul kalimah

يَقَتِّلُ                       قَتِّلْ

 

يُكَفِّرُ                      كَفِّرْ

  •    [3:193]  وَكَفِّرْ عنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنا

 

يُرَكِّبُ                      رَكِّبْ

 

يُمَوِّتُ                       مَوِّتْ

 

يُكَذِّبُ                       كَذِبْ

 

يُكَسِّرُ                        كَفِّرْ

 

يُفَسِّقُ                       فَسِّقْ

 

يُقَرِّبُ                       قَرِّبْ

 

يُفَتِّحُ                         فَتِّحْ

 

يُكَبِّرُ                         كَبِّرْ

  • وَكَبِّرهُ تَكبِيرًا  [17:111

 

بَابُ المُفَاعَلَة  (Chapter three)

فَاعَلَ, يُفَاعِلُ, تَفعِيلًا

This is as well of the first type, because there is no hamzah in the beginning, and it is of type B, because the letter of the letter of the Mudaara’ah is mutaharrik .

Here we do the same and drop the letter of the Mudaara’ah and silence laamul kalimah

 

يُقَاتِلُ                            قَاتِلْ

  • قَاتِلِي : Fight! (single female)
  • قَاتِلًا : Both of you Fight!
  • قَاتِلُوا : All of you Fight!  [9:14]

 

يُهَاجِرُ                        هَاجِرْ

  • هَاجِرْ : Abandon!

 

يُدَافِعُ                        دَافِعْ

  • دَافِعْ : Defend!  – دَافِعْ عَن أَخِيكَ   : Defend your brother

 

يُسَافِرُ                  سَافِرْ

  • سَافِرْ : Travel!

 

يُلاَزِمُ                       لَازِمْ

  • لَازِمْ: Stick to! – لاَزِم شَيخَكَ    : Stick to your Sheikh

 

يُحَاسِبُ                    حَاسِبْ

  • حَاسِبْ نَفسَكَ

 

يُعَاقِبُ                      عَاقِبْ

 

يُشَاهِدُ                       شَاهِدْ

 

يُصَابِرُ                      صَابِرْ

  • صَابِرْ : Bear with patience

 

يُلاَحِقُ                       لَاحِقْ

  • لاَحِقْ : Chase!

 

المَزِيدُ فِيهِ بِحرفَين

 

بَابُ الانفِعَال  (Chapter one)  and بَابُ الافتِعَال  (Chapter two) and   بَابُ الافعِلَال   (Chapter three)

اِنفَعَلَ, يَنفَعِلُ, اِنفِعَالًا

اِفتَعَلَ, يفتَعِلُ, اِفتِعَالًا

اِفعَلَّ, يَفعَلُّ, اِفعِلَالًا

These three chapters are of the first type, because they don’t have a hamzah in the beginning, and it is of type A and not type B, because the letter after the letter of the Mudaara’ah is silenced

 

بَابُ التَّفاعُل  (Chapter four)

تَفَاعَلَ, يَتَفَاعَلُ, تَفَاعُلاً

 

يَتَجَاهَلُ            تَجَاهَلْ

  • تَجَاهَلَ : He pretended

 

يَتَبَاخَلُ                   تَبَاخَلْ

 

يَتَذَاكَرُ                     تَذَاكَرْ

  • تَذَاكَرْ أنتَ وَ زَيدٌ العِلمَ

 

يَتَعَالَمُ                       تَعَالَمْ

 

يَتَكَاسَلُ                    تَكَاسَلْ

 

يَتَقَاتَلُ                       تَقَاتَلْ

 

يَتَنَاصَرُ                       تَنَاصَرْ

 

يَتَشَارَكُ                   تَشَارَكْ

 

يَتَظَاهَرُ                 تَظَاهَرْ

 

بَابُ التَّفَعُّل  (Chapter five)

تَفَعَّلَ, يَتَفَعَّلُ, تَفَعُّلًا

 

يَتَقَدَّمُ                     تَقَدَّمْ

  • تَقَدَّمِي : Move forward! ( the single female)

 

يَتَأَخَّرُ                   تَأَخَّرْ

 

يَتَكَلَّمُ                     تَكَلَّمْ

  • تَكَلَّمْ : Speak!

 

يَتَقَبَّلُ                     تَقَدَّمْ

  •  رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا  [2:127

 

يَتَكَبَّرُ                    تَكَبَّرْ

 

يَتَعَلَّمُ                     تَعَلَّمْ

  • تَعَلَّمْ دِينَكَ  : Learn your deen (religion)

 

يَتَزَوَّجُ                  تَزَوَّجْ

  • As mentioned in a hadeeth:

عَنْ مَعْقِلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَصَبْتُ امْرَأَةً ذَاتَ

حَسَبٍ وَجَمَالٍ وَإِنَّهَا لا تَلِدُ أَفَأَتَزَوَّجُهَا قَالَ لا ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ الثَّانِيَةَ فَنَهَاهُ ثُمَّ أَتَاهُ الثَّالِثَةَ فَقَالَ تَزَوَّجُوا

الْوَدُودَ الْوَلُودَ فَإِنِّي مُكَاثِرٌ بِكُمْ الأُمَمَ . صححه الألباني في إرواء الغليل

 

يَتَدَبَّرُ                     تَدَبَّرْ

 

يَتَشَهَّدُ                   تَشَهَّدْ

 

يَتَصَبَّرَ                 تَصَبَّرْ

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen shots:

Sarf level 2 - 43-32 - 1Sarf level 2- 43-32- 2Sarf level 2-43-32 -3Sarf level 2 - 43 - 32 - 4Sarf level 2 - 43 - 32- 5Sarf level 2 - 43- 32- 6

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