Establishing the Principles – Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 52

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

We start Level 2 continuing with Book 1 – Class 52


A quick revision of the text itself from the beginning until we stopped and inshaa’Allaah to start explaining some of the book concerning the four letter verb where all of its letters are original letters.  After this class, the invites for this class will only be sent to whoever passed level one exam.

S1 52.3


The author began:

  • بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ – (I start reading) seeking the aid of only Allaah mentioning His Name to receive the blessings in my reading the Most Gracious Most Merciful; meaning the One of an ever vast Mercy and the One Who delivers this mercy to whomever He wills.

  • وَبِهِ نَسْتَعِينُ – And from Him only we seek aid.

  • رب تـمم بالخير – my Lord, complete this with goodness.

  • الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ العَالَمِينَ ، وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلـى سَيِّدِ الْخَلْقِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ ، وَأَصْـحَابِهِ أَجْمَعِينَ  – All the praise is to Allaah Lord of the worlds and may the exalt and mention and the peace be upon His slave and messenger ( the leader of the creation) Muhammad and his house of kin and all of his companions.

  • [تَعْرِيفُ عِلْمِ الصَّرفِ]  – Definition of the science of Sarf

    • Whatever is between the brackets is not part of the text.  It has only been added for clarification.

Ustaadh suggested that we all memorize this text together bit by bit –  three lines three days a week -and we will make a plan for that.

  • اِعْلَمْ: أَنَّ التَّسْرِيفُ فِي اللُّغَةِ : التَّغْيِيرُ. وَفِي الصِّنَاعَةِ : تَحْوِيلُ الأصْلِ الوَاحِدِ إِلَى أَمْثِلَةٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ لِمَعانٍ مَقْصُودَةٍ ، لاَ تَحْصُلُ إِلاَّ بِهَا – Know/acknowledge/understand/ believe that tasreef (sarf) linguistically means changing and technically it is changing the single origin into different forms for/to express meant meanings, which do not come about except by them (those forms).

    • Ustaadh said to pay close attention as this may be covered in the second exam – knowing the translation of what the author is talking about such as the meaning of “i`lam” (means “know/acknowledge/understand/believe”),
    • Tasreef and sarf share the same meaning:  the late scholars used tasreef and sarf for the same technical meaning but the ancient scholars used sarf for a meaning and tasreef for another meaning.  So here we are following the late scholars in what they have chosen and sought.
    • At-Taghyeeru means “the changing”  it is the verbal noun.
    • Fis-sinaa`ti means “In the making” and waht is meant by this is “technically.”
    • Tahsulu is on the scale of taf`ulu and taf`ulu is used for the single spoken to male/and the single spoken about female.  Here it is the single spoken about female that is meant since it is referring back to Ma`aanin (the meanings –  alot of the plural words are treated with femininity and are referred to in the single spoken about form).
    • Laa Tahsulu means it (hiya) doesn’t happen.
    • Bihaa means except by those (haa- refers back to Amthilah –  the forms)

Then in the footnote to the text –  the author clarified this technical defintion  by saying:

  • أَي: لا تحصل تلك المعاني إلا بالأمثلة المختلفة– Meaning: those meanings don’t come about except by the different forms.

S1 52.4

  • [تَقْسِيمُ الفِعْلِ]– [ Types of the verb]

    • The words in brackets are not part of the text – it has been added by the one who investigated the book for clarification.
  • ثُمَّ الفِعْلُ .. إِمَّا: ثُلاَثِيُّ ، وَإِمَّا : رُبّاعِيٌّ – Then the verb… is either three lettered, or either four lettered.

  • Thumma means “then.”
  • وَكَلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا..إِمَا: مُجَرَّدٌ ، أَوْ مَزِيدٌ فِيهِ.  – And each one of (both of) them is either free from any extra letters or has extra letters added to it.

    • In the beginning he gave two types of verbs and each one of the two is also of two types for  a total of four types of verbs:
      1. a thulaathiyy which is mujarrad
      2. a thulaathiyy which is mazeed
      3. a rubaa`iyy which is mujarrad
      4. a rubaa`iyy which is mazeed
    • minhumaa means  of them … Humaa is used for “they both” and here it is referred to thulathiyy and rubaa`iyy
  • . وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهَا.. إِمَّا: سَالِمٌ ، أَوْ غَيْرُ سَالِمٍ – And each one of them (the four) is either free in thier original letters from … (mentioned below) … or not free in thier original letters from … (mentioned below) …

    • minhaa here refered back to a plural which is all of the four types as given above
    • Now there are Eight types of verbs
    • If the Ustaadh brought this in the exam and asid:  “Mention how many types in general the author mentioned inthis text  –  you would say:  “The overall of what he has mentioned is eight types and these cover all the verbs in the Sarf:

S1 52.2

S1 52.1

So the verb is either one of those eight.

    • Saalimun – it is the verb that does not have in its original letters a harf Illah (alif waaw or yaa), a hamzah, and it is not doubled (the ayn and faa being the same letter.)

Ustaadh gave examples for the types which we have already studied and they are:

  1. Thulaathiyyun Mujarradun Saalimun:
    • The example is ضَرَبَ
  2. Thulaathiyyun Mujarradun Ghayru Saalimin:
    • قَال – Harf Illah (al-waaw) is in the middle
    • دَعَا- Harf Illah (al-waaw) is in the end
    • بَاعَ- Harf Illah (al-yaa’) is in the middle
    • قَضَى – Harf Illah (al-yaa’) is in the end
    • صَبَّ –  mudha`af mutaadhin – Qiyaas for chapter one
    • فَرَّ – mudha`af laazim – Qiyaas for chapter two
    • أَخَذَ – Hamzah is at the beginning
    • سأَلَ – Hamzah is in the middle
    • بَدَأَ – Hamzah is at the end

We have studied three out of the Eight:  these two and Rubaaiyyun mujarradun saalimun. (dahraja).  In Level Two we will cover the rest of the five and in the last level it will be studying the nouns  –  wa bitawfeeq.

  • وَنَعنِي بِـــ(السَّالِمِ) مَا سَلِمَستْ حُرُوفُهُ الأَصْلِيَّةُ الَّتِي تُقَابَلُ بِالفَاءِ وَالعَيْنِ وَاللَّامِ مِنْ حُرُوفُ العِلَّةِ وَالْهِمْوَةِ وَالتَضْعِيفِ– And we ( the scholars of Arabic)  mean by  (the so called) Saalim ( the technical term) – what had its original letters which fall parallel to the faa and the `ayn and the laam, free from huruuful `illah (letters of `illah –  alif, waaw and yaa’), the hamzah, and the doubling (multiplicity).

    • The author said “we” referring to the scholars of Arabic language in this field.  A BENEFICIAL PRINCIPLE when READING the TEXT of the trusted and truthful scholars:  If they said a word ( for example “we”) which gives two possible meanings (could mean we for glorification and this would be a wrong meaning since the scholars are preserved from glorifying themselves or could mean “we” referring to the scholalrs consensus on a principle or defintion etc. and this would be a good acceptable meaning)   – then we must take the good meaning.  Those who follow otherwise –  are usually people who have a disease in the hearts trying to fish for mistakes or spot what they can consider to be mistakes, although if you come to think of it, you will realize that they have understood that way only due to their ignorance.

[First and Second Chapters]

  • أَمَّا الثُّلاَثِيُّ المُجَرَّدُ: فَإِنْ كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى وَزْنِ فَعَلَ مَفْتُوحُ الْعَيْن.. فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفْعَلَ ، بِضَمِّ الْعَيْنِ أَوْ كَسْرَهَا؛ نَحْوُ:نَصَرَ يَنْصُرُ ، وَضَرَبَ يَضْرِبُ  – As for the three letter verb which does not have any added letters: if its maadhee was on the scale of fa`ala فَعَلَ with the `ayn having a fathah, then its mudhaari` is yaf`ulu يَفْعُلُ  or yaf`ilu يَفِعِلُ. By giving the dhammah to the `ayn or giving it the kasrah.  Such as Nasara/yansuru نَصَرَ  – يَنْصُرُ or Dharaba/yadhribu ضَرَبَ – يَضْرِبُ .

    • First the author laid out all the types in general  then he put it into detail and this is the way of the Quraan and the Sunnah  –  it is known as الطَّيُّ وَالنَّشر  at-tayy wan-nashr   It is summing up the information in general to peak the readers interest then putting it into detail.  It is a powerful way of explaining.  For an example of this we read what Allaah Ta’Aala said:

يَوْمَ يَأْتِ لَا تَكَلَّمُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ فَمِنْهُمْ شَقِيٌّ وَسَعِيدٌ *  فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ شَقُوا فَفِي النَّارِ‌ لَهُمْ فِيهَا زَفِيرٌ‌ وَشَهِيقٌ * خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْ‌ضُ إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ رَ‌بُّكَ ۚ إِنَّ رَ‌بَّكَ فَعَّالٌ لِّمَا يُرِ‌يدُ *  وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ سُعِدُوا فَفِي الْجَنَّةِ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْ‌ضُ إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ رَ‌بُّكَ ۖ عَطَاءً غَيْرَ‌ مَجْذُوذٍ

The Day it comes no soul will speak except by His permission. And among them will be the wretched and the prosperous. * As for those who were [destined to be] wretched, they will be in the Fire. For them therein is [violent] exhaling and inhaling. * [They will be] abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will. Indeed, your Lord is an effecter of what He intends. * And as for those who were [destined to be] prosperous, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will – a bestowal uninterrupted.  [ Hud 11:105-108]

    • He started mentioning the combinations that go with the principle –  those that go accordingly  (he started with yaf`ulu and yaf`ilu).  The principle which states that the harakah of the ayn in the maadhee is supposed to bedifferent then the harakah on the `ayn in the Mudhaari`.
    •  Nasara/yansuru نَصَرَ  – يَنْصُرُ is the common example for first chapter to the mutaadin and the common example for the laazim is kharaja/yakhruju خَرَجَ – يَخْرُجُ .
    • Dharaba/yadhribu ضَرَبَ – يَضْرِبُ is common example of chapter 2 for the mutaadhee and jalasa/yajlisu جَلَسَ – يَجْلِسُ  is the common example for the laazim.

[Third Chapter]

Then he started off with a new line saying:

  • وَيَجِئُ عَلَى وَزْنِ يَفْعَلُ بِفَتْحِ الْعَيْنِ ، إِذَا كَانَ عَيْنُ فِعْلِهِ أَوْ لاَمُهُ حَرْفاً مِنْ حُرُوفِ الْخَلْقِ. وَ هِيَ سِتَّةٌ: الْهَمْزَةُ وَالْهَاءُ ، وَالعَيْنُ وَالحَاءُ ، وَالْغَيْنُ وَالْخَاءُ ؛ نَحْوُ سَأَلَ يَسْأَلُ ، وَمَنَعَ يَمْنَعُ. وَأَبَى يَأْبَى شَاذٌ   – And it comes with Yaf`alu يَفْعَلُ with a fathah on the `ayn, if it’s ayn or its laam was one of the letters of the throat and they are six: the hamzah and the haa and the `ayn and the khaa and the ghayn.  Such as sa`ala/yas`alu سَأَلَ – يَسْأَلُ  (`ayn is from huruuful halq) and mana`a/yamna`u  مَنَعَ – يَمْنَعُ (when laam is from huruuful-halq). (This chapter which is an exception might have exceptions as well) And Abaa-Ya’baa وَأَبَى- يَأْبَى  (which follows this chapter as well) is odd.

    • He said yaf`alu in a new line to indicate that that combination does not go accordingly.  ( With the condition mentioned above).
    • He mentioned that the chapter which doesn’t go accordingly (fa`ala-yaf`alu) due to the condition of the ayn or laam being from huruuful halq –  it might also have exceptions as well.

[Fourth Chapter]

  • وَ أَنْ كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى وَزْنِ فَعِلَ ، مَكْسُزوَ الْعَيْنِ.. فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفْعَلَ ، بِفَتْحِ الْعَيْنِ ؛ نَحْوُ: عَلِمَ يَعْلَمُ إِلاَّ مَا شذَّ مِنْ نَحْوِ: حَسِبَ يَحْسِبُ ، وَ أَخَوَاتِهِ. – And if its maadhee was on the scale of fa`ila, with a kasrah on the `ayn. .. then its mudhaari` is taf`alu with a fathah on the `ayn such as `alima/ya`lamu عَلِمَ – يَعْلَمُ.  Except what was odd such as hasiba/yahsibu حَسِبَ –  يَحْسِبُ and it’s sisters (whatever belongs to that group of verbs).

    • `alima/ya`lamu is the mutaa`dee example for this chapter –  chapter 4. And the example of the laazim of this chapter is wajila/yawjalu وَجِلَ – يَوْجَلُ

[Fifth Chapter]

  • وَ أَنْ كَانَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى وَزْنِ فَعُلَ ، مَضْمُومَ الْعَيْنِ.. فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفْعُلَ ، بِضَمِّ الْعَيْنِ ؛ نَحْوُ: حَسُنَ يَحْسُنُ ، وَأَخَوَاتِهِ. – And if its maadhee was on the scale of fa`ula, with its `ayn having a dhammah  .. then its mudhaari` is yaf`ulu with a dhammah on the `ayn such as hasuna/yahsunu and its sisters.

The he mentioned ar-rubaa`iyyu mujarrad and this is where we stopped/the last thing we have taken:

  • وَ أَمَّا الرُّبَاعِيُّ الْمُجَرَّدُ: فَهُةَ بَابٌ وَاحِدٌ ، فَعْلَلَ، كَدَحْرَجَ يُدَحْرِجُ دَحْرَجَةً ، دِحْرَاجاً . – And as for the four letter verb which is free from extra letters, then it is one chapter: fa`lala فَعْلَلَ، like dahraja – yudahriju – dahrajah – and dihraajaa دَحْرَجَ يُدَحْرِجُ دَحْرَجَةً ، دِحْرَاجاً  

    •  The four letter verb that is free from extra letters has two masdars: dahrajatan is on the scale of fa`lalatan فَعْلَلَةً and dihraajan is on the scale of fi`laalaa  فِعْلَالاً
    • the scale for this chapter is: فَعلَلَ يُفَعْلِلُ فَعْلَلَةً وفِعْلَالاً

والله تعالى أعلم … الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام  على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah. 

If a reader should come across a typo or mistake, kindly mention it in the comments below that it may be rectified.  Baarakallaahu feekum.


One thought on “Establishing the Principles – Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 52

  1. ummnaz May 8, 2013 at 5:25 am Reply

    Jazakillahu khairan ukhti…

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