Sarf – Level 2 – Class 34

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, ومن تبعهم إلى يوم الدين أما بعد

A Simple Overview of the أمْر >>>

Types of Amr:

  1. Whichever does not start with a Hamzah – it is of two types:
    1. When the letter proceeding harf Mudhaar`ah is saakin
    2. When the letter proceeding Harf Mudhaar`ah is mutaharrik
  2. Whichever starts with a hamzah ( meaning the hamzatul-Qat`ah)

The starting point is going to be from the mudhaari` …

Example changing from Mudhaari` to Amr  when letter proceeding the harf Mudhaari`ah is saakin

It is four steps:

  1. Drop the yaa mudhaar`ah
  2. Replace it with alif wasl (hamzah wasl)
  3. Silence the last letter
  4. If the `Aynul Kalimah has a dhammah then give the alif wasl a dhammah, otherwise we give it a kasrah.
  • يَـخرُجُ     –>  اُخْرُجْ 
  • يَـنْطُرُ      –>  اُنْظُر 
  • يَـتْرُكُ     –>   اُتْرُك 
  • يَـضْرِبُ   –>  اِضْرِبْ
  • يَـعْلَمُ       –>     اِعْلَمْ
  • يَـشْرَبُ     –>  اِشْرَبْ 
  • يَـفْتَحُ     –>    اِفْتَحْ 
  • يَـحْسُنُ   –>   اُحْسُنْ 
  • يَـكْرُمُ       –>       اُكْرُمْ

Some Examples from Qur’aan

Qaalallaahu Ta’Aalaa:

  قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا  لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ 

[Allah] said, “Get out of Paradise, reproached and expelled. Whoever follows you among them – I will surely fill Hell with you, all together.”  [Al- Araaf 7:18]

 فَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِكَ وَشَرَابِكَ لَمْ يَتَسَنَّهْ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ حِمَارِكَ وَلِنَجْعَلَكَ آيَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَانظُرْ إِلَى الْعِظَامِ…

Look at your food and your drink; it has not changed with time. And look at your donkey; and We will make you a sign for the people. And look at the bones [of this donkey] … [Al- Baqarah 2:259]

وَاتْرُكِ الْبَحْرَ رَهْوًا إِنَّهُمْ جُندٌ مُّغْرَقُونَ

And leave the sea in stillness. Indeed, they are an army to be drowned.” [Ad-Dukhaan 44:24]

فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

But if you deviate after clear proofs have come to you, then know that Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. [Al- Baqarah 2:209]

~~~~~

Example changing to Amr when verb starts with a hamzah أ

These verbs belong to the first chapter of the three letter verbs:  المَزِيدُ فِيه بِـحَرْف

(أَفْعَلَ – يُعْفِلُ  – افْعَالا )

The steps:

  1. Put the Mudhaari` in its orginal state which means we bring back the hamzah ( of أَفْعَلَ ) and add it to the Mudhaari`  (notice harfu mudhaara`ah is taking a dhammah because this is a four letter verb.)
    • Recap:  If we take a word like ‘akrama and we follow the steps to turn a maadhee into a mudhaari` we add the letter of the mudhaari` without dropping anything – this is the qiyaas/the principle.   So ‘akrama is turned to yu’akrimu but the Arabs said yukrimu  so this is an oddity in principle but it is a qiyaas in usage because they dropped the hamzah for lightness in speech, that is because if we were using the hamzah of ANAYTU (instead of the yaa’) it would read ‘u’akrimu and this is heavy on the tongue so for uniformity (to unite the pattern- in all the ANAYTU forms) the Arabs dropped the hamzah of If`aal (the extra letter) .
  2. Drop the Yaa ul mudhaara`ah
  3. Silence the laam
  • أَكْرَمَ   –>  يُكْرِمُ  –> يُؤَكْرِمُ   –> يُأَكْرِمُ  –>  أَكْرِمْ 

  • يُأَدخِلُ  –>  أَدْخِلْ
  •  
  • يُأَخْرِجُ  –>  أَخـْرِجْ
  •  يُأَنْرِلُ  –> أَنزِلْ 
  •  يُأَجْلِسُ –>  أَجـْـلِسْ

  •  يُأَرْسِلُ –>  أَرْسِلْ
  •  
  • يُأَشْرِكُ  –>  أَشْرِكْ
  •  
  • يُأَسْمِعُ  –> أَسْمِعْ
  •  
  • يُأَطْعِمُ  –>  أَطْعِمْ
  •  
  • يُأَسْلِمُ  –>  أَسْلِمْ 

Some Examples from Qur’aan

QaalAllaahu Ta`aalaa:

 وَأَدْخِلْ يَدَكَ فِي جَيْبِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ

 And put your hand into the opening of your garment [at the breast]; it will come out white without disease. [An-naml 27/12]

 إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَ‌بُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

When his Lord said to him, “Submit”, he said “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” [Al Baqarah 2/131]

قَالُوا أَرْ‌جِهْ وَأَخَاهُ وَأَرْ‌سِلْ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ حَاشِرِ‌ينَ

They said, “Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers [Al A`raaf 7/111]

 أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ‌ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا لَـٰكِنِ الظَّالِمُونَ الْيَوْمَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

 How [clearly] they will hear and see the Day they come to Us, but the wrongdoers today are in clear error. [Maryam 19/38]

قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْ‌يَمَ اللَّـهُمَّ رَ‌بَّنَا أَنزِلْ عَلَيْنَا مَائِدَةً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ تَكُونُ لَنَا عِيدًا لِّأَوَّلِنَا وَآخِرِ‌نَا وَآيَةً مِّنكَ وَارْ‌زُقْنَا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ‌ الرَّ‌ازِقِينَ

Said Jesus, the son of Mary, “O Allah, our Lord, send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven to be for us a festival for the first of us and the last of us and a sign from You And provide for us, and You are the best of providers.” [Al Maa’idah 5/114]

– End of Dars –

الله تعالى أعلم … والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

Screen Shots >>>

S2 34_2

S2 34_3

S2 34_1

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