Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 56(L2)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Review >>>

  • We have taken the first chapter of الثلاثي المزيد بحرف It is باب الإفعال and this Chapter is used for many meanings – the first meaning we took is التعدية At-Ta`diyyah is to include the meaning of making to the verb.

  • After the verb was just only doing فَعَلَ يَفْعَلُ (fa`ala/yaf`alu), it became making something or someone do أَفْعَلَ يُفْعِلُ (af`ala/yuf`ilu).
  • It is not necessary that the verb (that we bring on this scale) is laazim,  it could be muta`addee also.  So this is the first meaning we have taken for this chapter …

New Notes >>>

Next our Ustaadh and his students brought examples of three letter verbs that can come on this scale with the meaning of التعدية Twenty four verbs were given and every “afala” form of them have examples in the Qur’aan. They are:

نَبَتَ – it grew ****                                                        خَرَجَ – he exited

   ذَهَبَ– he/it went                                                              دَخَلَ– he entered

ضَلَّ – he strayed/got lost                                                                  بَكَى – he cried

سَمِعَ– he heard                                                           ضَحِكَ– he laughed

غَرِقَ – he drowned                                                                   مَاتَ – he died

عَادَ – he returned/came back                                                                حَيِيَ – he lived *

بَدَأَ – he/it started/began                            حَلَّ – it became permissible/ he landed **

شَحِدَ – he witnessed                                             قَامَ – he stood/became upright

فَسَدَ – he/it become ruined/destroyed                                                               غَنِيَ – he was rich

ظَهَرَ – he/it appeared *****                                                                   أَتَى – he came

ذَاقَ – he tasted                               نَسِيَ – he forgot (as in 20/115)

زَاغَ – he strayed                      نَزَلَ – he descended, landed, set foot ***

* حَيِيَ – This is not strange (this form) because the yaa had a harakah but the letter before had a kasrah (not a fathah to turn the last yaa into an alif …)

 **  حَلَّ –  as in   حَلَّ مَنْزِل   he reached/landed to a place…

***نَزَلَ – as in the hadeeth of the Rasool Sallalaahu`alayhi wasallam –  مَنْ نَزَلَ مَنْزِلا فَقَالَ أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ لَمْ يَضُرَّهُ شَيْءٌ حَتَّى يَرْتَحِلَ مِنْ مَنْزِلِهِ ذَلِكَ

****نَبَتَ – it is not used for human beings, except for hair, growing hair –  it is used most commonly for a plant that grows or hair …

*****ظَهَرَ – could also mean he overcame/over powered, defeated … as in Al-Bukhaaree Book 1 Chapter 7: The long hadeeth about the comapnions and Heraclius of Rome … the part of the hadeeth that states:  فَقَالَ هِرَقْلُ : هَذَا مَلِكُ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ

Examples from Qur’aan >>>

*Our Teacher advised us that though we have moved to Level Two, we will continually be revising Level One …

First verb: خَرَجَ


The Maadhee:

فَخَرَ‌جَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَ‌ابِ فَأَوْحَىٰ إِلَيْهِمْ أَن سَبِّحُوا بُكْرَ‌ةً وَعَشِيًّا

So he came out to his people from the prayer chamber and signaled to them to exalt [Allah] in the morning and afternoon. [Maryam 19:11]

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِم بَطَرًا وَرِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطٌ

And do not be like those who came forth from their homes insolently and to be seen by people and avert [them] from the way of Allah. And Allah is encompassing of what they do [ِِِِAl-Anfaal 8:47]

  • Now we will bring this verb on the scale of Af`ala by simply adding a hamzah to the beginning, giving it a fathah, silencing the faa’ul-kalimah and fixing the `ayn on a fathah …
  • أَخْرَجَ means: he got something out of something/ he made to go out… for example أَخْرَجْتُ كِتَابِي (I took out my book).
  • The conjugation is the same as in the three letter verb.

أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ‌ لُّجِّيٍّ يَغْشَاهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَا أَخْرَ‌جَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَ‌اهَا وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّـهُ لَهُ نُورً‌ا فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُّورٍ‌

Or [they are] like darknesses within an unfathomable sea which is covered by waves, upon which are waves, over which are clouds – darknesses, some of them upon others. When one puts out his hand [therein], he can hardly see it. And he to whom Allah has not granted light – for him there is no light. [An-Noor 24:40]

وَأَخْرَ‌جَتِ الْأَرْ‌ضُ أَثْقَالَهَا

 And the earth discharges its burdens   [Az-Zalzalah 99:2]

We know that the earth is that which took out because the dhammah at the end of “al-ardhu” indicates that it is the faa’il.

Some examples with the attached receiver:

  • أَخْرَ‌جَهُ – he took it/him out as in the saying of Allaah:

إِلَّا تَنصُرُ‌وهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَ‌هُ اللَّـهُ إِذْ أَخْرَ‌جَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ‌ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَنَا ۖ

If you help him (Muhammad sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) not (it does not matter), for Allâh did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muhammad sallallaahu alayhi wasallam and Abu Bakr radhiallahu’anhu) were in the cave, and he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)said to his companion (Abu Bakr radhiallahu’anhu): “Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allâh is with us.” [At-Tawbah 9:40]

  • أَخْرَ‌جَهَا – he took it/her out
  • أَخْرَ‌جَكَ – he took you(m) out As in the saying of Allaah:

كَمَا أَخْرَ‌جَكَ رَ‌بُّكَ مِن بَيْتِكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِ‌يقًا مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَارِ‌هُونَ

 [It is] just as when your Lord brought you out of your home [for the battle of Badr] in truth, while indeed, a party among the believers were unwilling,  [Al-Anfal 8:5]

  • أَخْرَ‌جَكِ – he took you (f) out
  • أَخْرَ‌جَنَا – he took us out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَا – we took out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَاهُ – we took him out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَاهَا – we took her out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَاهُ – we took him out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَاهُمَا – we took both of them out
  • أَخْرَ‌جْنَاهُمْ – we took all of them out as in Allaah’s Saying:

فَأَخْرَ‌جْنَاهُم مِّن جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ

So, We expelled them from gardens and springs, [Ash-Shu`araa’ 26:57]

  • أَخْرَ‌جَنِي – he took me out –  (we add the noon then the yaa’) as in the saying of Allaah:

وَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ بِي إِذْ أَخْرَ‌جَنِي مِنَ السِّجْنِ وَجَاءَ بِكُم مِّنَ الْبَدْوِ مِن بَعْدِ أَن نَّزَغَ الشَّيْطَانُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ إِخْوَتِي ۚ إِنَّ رَ‌بِّي لَطِيفٌ لِّمَا يَشَاءُ

…when He took me out of the prison, and brought you (all here) out of the bedouin-life, after Shaitân (Satan) had sown enmity between me and my brothers…. [Yusuf 12:100]

  • أَخْرَ‌جَهُمَا – he took both of them out,  as in Allaah’s Words:

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَ‌جَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ

Then the Shaitân (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were… [Al-Baqarah 2:36]

Now we move to examples of the Mudhaari` –  It is conjugated the same as the mujarrad but the letter of the mudhaari` will take a dhammah and the `ayn is fixed on kasrah.  If it is asked (in an exam) what is the difference between Akhruju and Ukhriju … if you said Ukhriju is a four letter verb  that would be sufficient.  Or if it is asked in an exam, what is the difference in Arji`u and Urji`u –  we would say urji`u is the four letter verb,  urji`u means:  “I bring back.”

The Mudhaari`:

وَتُخْرِ‌جُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِ‌جُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ

…You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living… [Aal `Imraan 3:27]

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِ‌جُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِ‌كُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَ‌رْ‌تُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness. [Al-Baqarah 2:84]

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَ‌هُ فِي عُنُقِهِ ۖ وَنُخْرِ‌جُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورً‌ا

 And We have fastened every man’s deeds to his neck, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open.. [Al-Israa’ 17:13]

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِ‌جُكُمْ تَارَ‌ةً أُخْرَ‌ىٰ

 Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again. [Taa haa 20:55]

أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَ‌ضٌ أَن لَّن يُخْرِ‌جَ اللَّـهُ أَضْغَانَهُمْ

Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their [feelings of] hatred?. [Muhammad 47:29]

– End of Dars –

الله تعالى أعلم … والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

Screen Shot >>>

S1 56.1


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