Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 58(L2)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Notes >>>

بَابُ الإِفعَال

أَفعَلَ, يُفعِلُ إِفعَالًا

 

With the meaning of  التَّعدِية

 

أَبكَتنِي سُورَةُ يُوسُفَ  – The Soorah of Yoosuf made me cry

Q 1: Where is the Faa’il? سُورَة

Q 2: Why is it the Faa’il? Because it is a Noun in a state having a dhammah

  • أَبكَتنِي : She/it made me cry
  • تَالله تَفتَأُ تَذكُرُ – After the verb تَفتَأُ comes a word which has a dhammah تَذكُرُ , but this doesn’t mean it is a Faa’il, because this word is a verb and a verb can not be a Faa’il. So to  be more specific when mentioning the Faa’il, let your answer be: “Because it is a Noun in a state having a dhammah.”
  • أَبكَى : He made cry

Reminder:

دَعَا is of Chapter one because its laam is originally a waaw and when we want to add Waawul Jamaa’ah to this type of verb we drop laamul Kalimah دَعَاوا (two sukoons in a row we can drop the alif because it is one of hurooful ‘illah and the letter before it has a suitable harakah (fathah))   دَعَوا

And in أَبكَى we will do the same when adding Waawul Jamaa’ah

أَبكَى + وا = أبكَاوا  Here we have two sukoons in a row and according to the principle we are able to drop the first saakin letter أَبكَوا

  • أَبكَوا : They made cry
  • When there is an Alif and you add Waawul Jamaa’ah and the Alif gets dropped because of two sukoons in a row and the letter before it has a fathah it stays mafthooh  –and more details will be explained in higher levels in shaa Allaah-

Q: How do you say: They made me cry? أَبكَونِي

  • When we add the yaa we add the noon first أَبكَونِي– Here Aliful Faariqah has no use since it is followed by an other letter
  • Just as the saying of Allaah:

 قَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ إِنَّهُمْ عَصَوْنِي وَاتَّبَعُوا مَن لَّمْ يَزِدْهُ مَالُهُ وَوَلَدُهُ إِلَّا خَسَارًا

Nuh (Noah) said: “My Lord! They have disobeyed me, and followed one whose wealth and children give him no increase but only loss. [71:21]

عَصَونِي

It was عَصَاونِي and the first saakin letter which is the alif gets dropped according to the principle عَصَونِي

  • It is from عصَى
  • عَصَونِي : They disobeyed me

Also in the following hadeeth it says دَعَوتَنِي و رَجَوتَنِي

عن أنس بن مالك رضي عنه ، قال : سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : قال الله تعالى

: يابن آدم ، إنك ما دعوتني ورجوتني غفرت لك على ما كان منك ولا أبالي ، يا ابن آدم ، لو

بلغت ذنوبك عنان السماء ، ثم استغفرتني ، غفرت لك ، يا ابن آدم ، إنك لو أتيتني بقراب الأرض

خطايا ، ثم لقيتني لا تشرك بي شيئا ، لأتيتك بقرابها مغفرة . رواه الترمذي وقال : حديث حسن

  • دَعَوتَ : You invoked/ asked/called
  • دَعَوتَنِي : You invoked me
  • رَجَوتَ : You hoped
  • رَجَوتَنِي : You hoped from me

 

قَامَ

  • قَامَ : He stood; It was set up right – According to both meanings they are Laazim

 

أَقَامَ

Its Maadh

أَقَامَ is originally أَقوَمَ

In أَقوَمَ we see that there is no reason to turn the waaw into an Alif, because the qaaf (letter before the waaw) is silent and it does not have a fathah.

There is a Principle that says:  Whenever عَينُ الكَلِمَة  is a و or a ي having a harakah and preceeded by a Saakin, we move that harakah tot hat saakin, and change them (i.e. Waaw or Yaa) into what suits that harakah

(this principle mentions ‘how’ they do that )

أَقوَمَ Here the ‘ayn of the Kalimah is a waaw having a harakah (fathah) and it is preceeded by a Saakin (qaaf), now we can move the harakah on the Waaw to the Qaaf  أَقَومَ – After this we change the waaw into the letter suiting the harakah (fathah) , and that what suits the fathah is the Alif أَقَامَ

There is also a fast and easy way, which is to just add the hamzah in the beginning of the three letter verb  قَامَ + أ = أَقَامَ

And do the same with every three letter verb which has a waaw or yaa as ‘aynul Kalimah

  • أَقَامَ : He made stand / set up straight
  • أَقَامَ is on the scale of أَفعَلَ
  • A General Principle : “Whatever is followed in the Masdar is followed in the Verb”

This principle is a result/reason to why the principle above is followed

–          The Masdar  is إِقَامَة – and in this the waaw of the masdar was a turned into an Alif (and after that it got dropped due to iltiqaaus-saakinayn)

أَقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ : He set up straight the prayer

  • The benefit from this is that it doesn’t mean ‘ just pray’,  but it means ‘pray correctly’
  • They say for example: قَامَ السُّوقُ   The trade became very good/ the economy raised

 

Its Mudaari’

يُقِيمُ is originally يُقوِمُ

The same thing was done here – ‘Aynul kalimah is a waaw having a harakah (kasrah) and it is preceeded by a saakin (qaaf), the harakah (kasrah) of the waaw was moved to the silent Qaaf يُقِومُ , after this the waaw was turned into the letter suiting the  kasrah, which is the yaa يُقِيمُ

  • يُقِيمُis on the scale of يُفعِلُ

 

Its Masdar

إِقَامَة was originally إِقوَام

Here we can apply that principle and move the harakah (fathah) of the waaw (‘aynul kalimah) to the preceeded saakin letter Qaaf إِقَوام , after this we turn the waaw into an alif suiting the fathah إِقَاام

Now we have iltiqaaus saakinayn and according to the principle we can drop the first saakin letter إقَام ( which is ‘aynul kalimah), and they usually make up for the original letter which was dropped, so they made up for it here by adding a ‘ ة’  at the end of the word  إِقَامَة

And according to what was dropped   إِقَامَة is on the scale of  إِفَالَة (dropping ‘aynul kalimah like it was dropped in the word weighed)

  • Reminder: Whatever is dropped from the word weighed we drop it from the scale
  • إِقَامَةً when it comes third place in Tasreef and إِقَامَةٌ when you are asked of the masdar only

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen shot:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 58 L2 - 1

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