Establishing the Principles – Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 63(L2)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين,

أما بعد

Notes >>>

The fourth Meaning of  بَابُ الإِفعَال

 

الدُّخُول فِي الشَّيءِ زَمَانًا أو مَكَانًا         ‘Entering a time or a place’

 

You use this when you want to point out thatq the doer has entered the place or time from which those original letters are taken from

You look at the noon expressing the time or place, and you take its original letters and add to it the hamzah bringing it to the scale of  أَفعَلَ

Time:

صَبَاح  : Morning

مَسَاء : Evening

فَجر : The break of dawn

ضُحَى : After sunrise

 

Place:

نَجد : Najd (region in the middle east)

تِهَامَة : Tihaamah (Place in the middle east)

عِرَاق : Iraq

يَمَن : Yemen

مِصر : Egypt

صَحرَاء : Dessert

 

صَبَاح                 أَصبَحَ

  • أَصبَحَ : He entered the morning
  • صَبَاحis on the scale of  فَعَال , this means that the alif is extra

1st : We bring the hamzah which is the extra letter that is going ob e in the beginning always and give it a fathah     أَ

2nd : We bring faaul kalimah which is the ‘saad’ and silence it  أَصْ

3rd :  We bring ‘aynul kalimah which is the ‘baa’ and give it a fathah  أَصْبَ

4th : We bring laamul kalimah which is the ‘haa’ and give it a fathah  أَصبَحَ

  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ 

So glorify Allah [above all that (evil) they associate with Him (O believers)], when you come up to the evening [i.e. offer the (Maghrib) sunset and (‘Isha’) night prayers], and when you enter the morning [i.e offer the (Fajr) morning prayer]. [30:17]

  • تُصبِحُون : You all enter morning

 

مَسَاء                   أَمسَى

  • أَمسَىwas originally  أَمسَيَ , and here the yaa was turned into an alif, because it took a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah.
  • أَمسَى: He entered evening
  • مَسَاء here the hamzah is originally a yaa مَسَاي  , there is a Principle that says:  ‘’If the waaw or yaa came fourth after an extra alif, it is turned into a hamzah’’  – like with  سَمَاو , here the waaw came fourth  after an extra alif, so it was turned into a hamzah  سَمَاء
  • مَسَاء is on the scale of  فَعَال

 

فَجر                    أَفجَرَ

  • أَفجَرَ : He entered dawn (he entered fajr)

 

ضُحَى                  أَضحَى

  • أَضحَى: He entered after sunrise

 

نَجد                     أَنجَدَ

  • أَنجَدَ: He entered Najd

 

تِـهَامَة                      أتهَمَ

  • أتهَمَ: He entered Tihaamah
  • تِهَامَةis on the scale of  فِعَالَة , so the original letters are ‘taa’, ‘haa’, and ‘meem’

 

عِرَاق                  أَعرَقَ

  • أَعرَقَ: He entered Iraq

 

يَمَن                    أَيمَنَ

  • أَيمَنَ: He entered Yemen

 

مِصر                 أَمصَرَ

  • أَمصَرَ: He entered Egypt

 

صَحرَاء                 أَصحَرَ

  • أَصحَرَ : He entered the dessert
  • صَحرَاءis on the scale of فَعلَاء

 

~~~

The fifth  Meaning of  بَابُ الإِفعَال

 

الإِغنَاء                     ‘Sufficing/Ridding’

When  ( أَفعَلَ) is used without  having ( فعل)  sharing its meaning

The Arabs speak of the scale أَفعَلَ ,  without using its three letter verb for the same meaning

So when you find the Arabs saying  ( أَقسَمَ), and they used its three letter verb (i.e. قسم)  for any meaning other then the one they have used for ( أقسَمَ) then this is what is called  الإِغنَاء

  • It wasn’t before a three letter verb then they added to it to give another meaning, but its meaning started with it being a four letter verb
  • They called it الإِغنَاءbecause the scale أَفعَلَ ridded you from having a three letter verb to go back to it

 

أَقسَمَ : He swore

  • If you undress it from any extra letters and bring it to the three letter verb, you will find it on قَسَمَ , but its meaning doesn’t have anything to do with swearing, because  قَسَمَ  means ‘he divided’

 

أَلقَى : He threw

  • Its three letter verb لَقِيَ has another meaning which is, ‘he meet’

 

أَقَلَّ : He carried

  • Its three letter verb قَلَّ   has another meaning which is, ‘it decreased’

 

~~~

The sixth  Meaning of  بَابُ الإِفعَال

 

المُوَافَقَة                  ‘Matching/ going accordingly’

When ( أَفعَلَ) is no different in meaning than ( فَعل)

  • Some scholars say that the different between these two scales with this meaning is only in dialect – And some say that it is not logical to have an extra letter without an extra benefit, because originally the principle says: ‘The increase in building the word implies the increase in meaning’ – that is what lead some scholars to say, that if you use the scale of أَفعَلَ  it has a benefit of emphasizing/ stressing .

 

وَحَى                    أَوحَى

  • أَوحَى : He revealed
  • وَحَى: He revealed
  • الوَحي is when you tell someone something which no one else knows

 

سَقَى                     أَسقَى

  • أَسقَى: He fed (for drinking)
  • سَقَى : He fed (for drinking)

 

شَرَقَتْ                 أًشرَقَتْ

  • أًشرَقَتْ: It rose
  • شَرَقَتْ: It rose

 

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy (L2) 63-1Tasreeful 'izziyy (L2) 63-2

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