Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 57(L2)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

We had taken some verbs on the first meaning of this chapter –  بَابُ الإِفعَال and from them are:

1.) أَخْرَجَ  – meaning: he took out (he made come out in the sense of “took out.”) – Whenever the meaning of “making” is applied to any of those verbs (which could be laazim or muta`addee), you will eventually interpret it in a sensible meaning – the meaning that suits it. So أَخْرَجَ is – “He made come out” and that is basically “he took out”, or “he brought out.” or “he extracted” When you interpet such verbs which are found on this form for this meaning (At-ta`adiyyah) – you will interpet it however it goes. Allaah Ta’Aalaa said:

وَاللَّـهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّن بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُم

And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers …[16/78]

  • Q: What is the faa’il (in the aayah above)?
  • A: It is not Allaah as many students answered. Here “Allaah” comes BEFORE the verb and as we learned, the faa’il always comes AFTER the verb. The faa’il  is “huwa”  and it is hidden in akhraja.  Huwa refers back to Allaah.  If “the doer of the action” comes before the verb, it is no longer called “faa’il” it is called “mubtada.”  a word that is not proceeded by any verbal influence is called “Mubtada”  (it is a noun and it starts the sentence.)

2.) أَدْخَلَ Many Examples in Qur’aan. Allaah Ta’aalaa says:

وَأَدْخَلْنَاهُ فِي رَحْمَتِنَا إِنَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

And We admitted him to Our Mercy, truly, he was of the righteous [21/75]

وَأَدْخَلْنَاهُمْ فِي رَحْمَتِنَا إِنَّهُم مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

And We admitted them to Our Mercy. Verily, they were of the righteous. [21:86]

For the mudhaari` :

 لَّأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ

 … Verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise).  [5/12]

Here we see the hamzah at the beginning of the mudhaari` and the hamzah is used for only one cause:  the single speaker.  So if it is used for one speaker then dont let that noon which comes after fool you –  that  noon after is  نون التوكيد noon at-tawkeed – noon of confirming.  If it is a noon with Shaddah it can only be the noon of tawkeed – it has no other meaning.  Unless two noons came in a row and the first was saakin belonging to the word that came before and the second was saakin belonging to the word that came after.

Breaking it down:    أُدْخِلَ – I make enter                        

                      نَّ – noon of tawkeed                      

                      هُمْ  – all of them

رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ مَن تُدْخِلِ النَّارَ فَقَدْ أَخْزَيْتَهُ 

“Our Lord! Verily, whom You admit to the Fire, indeed, You have disgraced him… [3/192]

Here we see the taa which is used for the Spoken to.

The faa`il is hidden and the estimation is Anta.

Allaah Subhanaahu wa ta’aalaa said:

إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا

If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise).[4/31]

And Allaah Subhanaahu wa ta’aalaa said:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا

Truly, Allâh will admit those who believe (in Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds…. [22/14]

When the kaaf is used know that it is the spoken to …  (Ka Ki Kumma Kum Kunna)

And Allaah Subhanaahu wa ta’aalaa said:

يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَيُدْخِلْكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ

(If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow,… [61/12]

Allaah Said:

وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّـهِ وَمَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَن يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّالِحِينَ

“And why should we not believe in Allâh and in that which has come to us of the truth (Islâmic Monotheism)? And we wish that our Lord will admit us (in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection) along with the righteous people [5/84]

here we see naa is the receiver and it is called nal-maf`ooleen نا المفعولين

Allaah Ta’Aalaa also said:

مَن يَعْصِ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad ), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.[4/14]

Dont let the harakah on the laam distract you.  This is something in Nahw so we dont have to pay attention to it here.  All we have to focus on is the FORM  if the form is identical to what you have learned then that is the FORM that you know.

The next verbs we took:

3.) أَبكى

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَىٰ

And that it is He (Allah) Who makes (whom He wills) laugh, and makes (whom He wills) weep;  [53/43]

A student asked why in the translation it is “make” – instead of “made” (since this is the madhee).  This is because of the context –   Allah Ta’Aalaa is able to make cry all the time and that is not something that is restricted to the maadhee.  Similar is Allaahs Saying:

وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ غَفُورً‌ا رَّ‌حِيمًا

 And Allâh is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.  [ 4/96]

Kaana means “he was” but is that what is meant here? That He was only in the past and now he is not?  No.  And this (usage) is learned in balaaghah.  That is why –  and Allaah knows best –  that they have said “make” in the interpretation.

Q:  Which noun do we attach to the verb that means “me?”

A:  We attach a yaa but the yaa must come with a noon before it.  when we attach the noon and yaa at the end of the verb –  the shape of the alif changes:  أَبْكانـي   This is because it can only be maksoorah (shape of the yaa) when it is at the END of a word. أَبْكانـي  means “he made me cry.” أَبْكانـي الأمرُ means “the matter/issue made me cry.”

* The names could take “al” sometimes, like “Al-`Abbaas”  and the benefit of that is when “al” comes before the name it indicates that the one who has been given that name has the meaning of that name.  “abbaas” is taken from “`Uboos” and that means when you have an upset face, ( like “abasa Wa Tawalla”)

Continuing:

أَبْكتنـي means “she made me cry.”  (the alif was dropped because two saakin letters came in a row).

“She made me cry.” becomes “it made me cry.” when we add the following faa`il:   أَبْكتنـي سُورَةُ يُوسُف means “Soorah Yusuf made me cry.”  The faa`il is “soorah Yusuf.”

 أَبْكتنـي مشاهد سوريا  means ” The scenes (of) Syria made me cry”.  The plural “mashaahid” is spoken about in a feminine manner.  It is called “mashaahid” because it is something that is witnessed.

أَبْكيانـي means “They both made me cry.”  Here the “yaa” is before the aliful-ithnayn because it back to how it was –  we kept it how it was originally and didnt change it to an alif.

-END of DARS-

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

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