شرح نظم الأخضري 1

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

~~~~~

Transcription of Class 1

Introduction >>>

This poetry is based upon a fine treatise by عَبدُ الرَّحمَن بنُ مُحَمَّد بنِ عَامِر الأَخضَري النَطيُوسِي المَغرِبِي المَالِكِي (Abdur-Rahmaan ibnu Muhammad ibni ‘Aamir Al-Akhdariyy An-Natyoosiyy Al-Maghribiyy Al-Maalikiy. 

He died 953 AH.

He is known with books that are a center of attention and of a great importance to the scholars which they have explained.  And most of his books that were explained are poems.  The importance of this treatise goes back to it focusing on the portion of Jurisprudence which is necessary for every Muslim – not specified to students of knowledge but for every Muslim:

  • Male or female
  • Poor or rich
  • Free or slave

 Because it corrects his ibaadah and there is no way you can correct that which Allaah Ta`Aalaa commanded you of the acts of worship except by learning them.  That is why they said:

مَا لَا يَتِمُّ الْوَاجب إلى به فهو واجب

“If the waajib cannot be done except by one way then that way is waajib.”

SNA-1.1

 Example:

The prayer:  it is waajib upon you – you have to pray, it is obligatory upon each and every individual in Islaam.  This prayer has to be prayed in a way which validates it.  It has a certain way to be carried out.  The Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam did say:

صلوا كما رايتموني اصلي

 “Pray as you have seen me praying.”

We have mentioned time and time before,  the incident where the man prayed in from of the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam and the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam commanded him to return and pray saying that he has not prayed –  even though he has… (in picture)  then when the man went back and prayed the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam told him for the second time go back and pray for you have not prayed  and the third time he told him again –  then the man said:   By Allaah Oh Messenger of Allaah! I do not know except this so teach me.  So the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam – according to the scholars – mentioned to him in this hadeeth “al-Waajibaat” – What he has to do to validate and correct his prayer. 

You want to be praying correctly and there is only one way to do that and that is learning how to pray.  Learning how to pray will get you to pray correctly – it is the only way to do it.  If you don’t learn how to pray then your prayer won’t be corrected and will not be carried out correctly.  Praying in the correct manner is Waajib – it is of the most important waajibaat.  This waajib (praying correctly) is not reached to except by learning how to pray correctly.  When it was not possible to do the waajib (in this case praying correctly) except by doing another thing (in this case learning how to pray correctly) then that other thing (learning how to pray correctly) became waajib as well.    That is why the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi wasallam said:

طلب العام فريضة على كل مشلم

“Seeking Knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim.”

Narrated by  ibn Habban At-Tabarani and others. –  it is an authentic hadeeth.

This seeking of knowledge which is an obligation upon every Muslim – How do we understand it correctly?  If we go to knowledge then knowledge never ends.  And Allaah Ta’Aalaa says in the Qur’aan:

وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

{And you were not given of knowledge except a little.}  (17:85)

So does this saying of the Rasool mean that it is obligatory for everyone to be a scholar?  No that is not what it means.  Because taalibul-`ilm is of two types by the unanimous agreement of the scholars and one type is that knowledge which corrects what is obligatory upon you – what you have to do.   

Seeking knowledge is of two levels:

  1. Obligatory upon each and every individual.  The way to know that is to know what this knowledge leads to.  If it leads to an act of worship which is obligatory upon each and every individual, then it is of the level.  This type of obligation is called:  Fardhu`Ayn   فرض عين  The `ayn of something is it itself. So this level of obligation was given this name due to it being directed to every individual by himself And no one can be a substitute in it.
  2. That which is obligatory on a group who will suffice others.  The way to knowing that is whatever is beyond the first.  This is called Fardhu kifaayah فرض كفاية It was given this name due to it being obligatory upon a group in whom there will be sufficiency.  (fardh = obligation, Kifaayah =  sufficiency).

EXAMPLES OF FARDHU `AYN:

    • Correcting Belief (at tawheed)
    • Salah and ahkaam at taharah
    • Fasting Ramadhaan
    • Zakah
    •  Haaj
    • Goodness to Parents, goodness to neighbors, respecting the elder
    • Speaking the truth, keeping trust and keeping promises,
    • Avoiding Sins in general: avoiding zina,riba, khamr,  being wasting, gheebah and nameemah,

EXAMPLES FARDHU KIFAAYAH:

    • Al Janazah
    • Matters of inheritance
    • Judiciary matters
    • Jihaad
    • Learning Arabic, memorizing Quraan

SNA-1.2

In this treatise we are going to learn the most important part of which concerns Fardhu `ayn other than `Aqeedah (`aqeedah we are taking in another class).  This treatise includes manners which are obligatory, purification and prayer until the chapter of Sujood As-Sahw inshaa’Allaah.  (100 verses of these 277 verses of poetry speak about sujood As Sahw and when to do it and when not to – is it done before the tasleem or after it? ).

So after this treatise inshaa’Allaah, we will finish studying it with us not being heedless of the most important teachings of prayer so that we can be upon certainty in our religion and pray in a correct manner.  This is a very dangerous matter.  Hudhayfah,  when he saw a man not praying correctly he said:  “If this man died on this state he will die on other than the religion that Muhammad Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam was sent with.”  After Al-Aqeedah, the matter of As-Salaah is a very important and dangerous matter.  Whoever did not pray correctly did not in fact pray.

About the Poetry >>>

This was originally not in the form of poetry but it was made into poetry.   This happened in the late ages.  Even though there were some sciences that were made into poetry, this phenomenon started increasing in the late ages.  The reason why the scholars started doing that was to make it easy for the students of knowledge to memorize.    The poetry – which is a rhyming piece of text, sounds better to the ear and is harder to forget than the normal text.

There is hardly a book out there that was not turned into poetry – in many fields of knowledge and in many different sciences.

If you think of any book which was known to the scholars and a center of their attention, you will not find any book reaching to that level of importance to the scholars except that you will find some of the scholars who have turned it into poetry. This is besides the books of Hadeeth because in books of hadeeth, the hadeeth is memorized as it.  But in Fiqh for example, there isn’t a book except it is turned into poetry.  For Example, Zaad Al-Mustaqna was turned into poetry – in every madhaab you will find their known and trustworthy books turned into poetry.  All of this to make it easy for the student of knowledge to memorize it – because his attraction to the poetry is not like his attraction to the normal text.  The poetry is fun and exciting. It is lighter – it rhymes and is harder to forget.

There are books of hadeeth (without the chain of narration) that were made into poetry like Umdatul Ahkaam, which contains 400 Ahadeeth related to the topic of Jurisprudence.  Umdatul Ahkaam was written by Abdul-Ghanee Al Maqdisi.  It was made into poetry by the son of a popular Yemeni scholar, Imaam Muhammad ibn Isma`eel Al Amir As-Sana`aniyy (d. 1182).  Imaam As-Sana`aniyy himself wrote an explanation and a poetry to Bulughul Maraam called Subulus Salaam.  He did not complete it but one of his students completed it.

Even the Seerah was made into poetry and the books which speak about the narrators was made into poetry – it reached to the extent.  All of this due to the importance of memorizing, because what you know, in reality is what you memorize.  That is why our scholars said:

    العلم هو حفظ   Al `ilmu huwa hifdh – knowledge is memorizing.

The Text >>>

Any poetry has to follow one of the twelve (or so) patterns known in that science (the science of poetry).  The easiest of those patterns – as it is well known – is called Ar-rajaz.

Each pattern is done differently.  Ar-Rajaz is the pattern that most of the scholars follow when putting those books into poetry.

Ar rajaz is basically weighed by the word “mustaf`iloon” six times, three for each half.

مستفعلن  مستفعلن  مستفعلن   ***   مستفعلن  مستفعلن  مستفعلن

SNA-1.3

Any words that are put into poetry are made to match this platform/pattern.

(Our Ustaadh recited the first four lines and the students repeated after him.)

SNA-1.4SNA-1.5

 

In the next class Ustaadh will begin with the meanings of these lines Inshaa’Allaah.

~~~*~End of Dars~*~~~

الله تعالى أعلم … والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

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One thought on “شرح نظم الأخضري 1

  1. sarf4sisters February 25, 2014 at 11:39 pm Reply

    Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatullaah

    A typo in the notes has been corrected – مستفعلون has been changed to: مستفعلن .

    Baarakallaahu feekum. Umm Omar

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