Analyzing the verbs of The Holy Qur’an 1

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

We start today with the best word the most truthful word, the word of Allaah سبحانه وتعالى .  Basically this is a practical applying of the principles we have learned in Sarf thus far.  We will stop at each verb that is mentioned in the Qur’aan, mentioning the meaning of every verb, the classified meaning that is used by each form of a verb (because one form of a verb could be used for multiple classified meanings).    We ask the Aid from only Allaah سبحانه وتعالى to finish what we have started and we seek his refuge from falling into error when speaking of His Book and from falling into error in general.

حسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل ربنا عليك توكلنا و إليك أنبنا و إليك المصير

It is Sunnah to seek refuge with Allaah before reciting the Qur’aan as Allaah said:

فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّـهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

So when you want to recite the Qur’aan, seek refuge with Allaah from Shaytaan (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one).  [An-Nahl 16:98]

So the first thing we speak about in shaa’ Allaah is Al-Isti`aadhah (the saying of “I seek refuge with Allaah from the accursed Shaytaan.”)

أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّبْطَانِ الرَّجِبم

VERB 1 >>> أَعْوُذُ

It is originally  أَعْوُذُ on the scale of  أَفْعُلُ  but the dhammah is heavy on the waaw and in order to get rid of this heaviness, the dhammah was moved to the preceding vacant letter.

AVQ-1.3

 Whenever a dhammah is on a waaw and before the waaw is a silent letter, the dhammah on the waaw is moved to the vacant letter before it.  This is applicable to every verb of the likes of أَعْوُذُ   That is, whenever we have a verb and the `ayn of the verb is a waaw, then in the mudhaari`, the dhammah on that waaw is given to the preceding letter just as long as that preceding letter is vacant of any harakah.  This is the first way to know that a verb belongs to Chapter 1.  We said that there are three ways that we have taken so far to know that a verb belongs to Chapter One (fa`ala – yaf`ulu), and the first way is this way:  When the `ayn is a waaw, unconditionally.  So أَعْوُذُ  is min Baabi-kharaja because it is laazim  (as opposed to saying min baabi nasara  which refers to the mutaad`ee).  It is laazim because we use the bi, As in:

وَإِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ

“And truly, I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord lest you stone me.  (Ad-Dukhaan 44:20)

You won’t need a harf for the muta`aadee but you do need it for the laazim.   You say أَعْوُذُ after moving the dhammah to the preceding `ayn, does it change the scale? do we say أَفُولُ  – does it change? No it doesn’t.

The doer is “Ana” – أَنَا أَعْوُذُ (I seek refuge – the doer is “I”).

The Maadh of يَعْوُذُ is عَاذَ which was originally عَوَذَ but since the waaw had a harakah and the letter before it had a fathah, we turned the waaw into an alif.

~~~~~

Conjugating >>> 

Turning أَعُوذُ (the mudhaari`) to the maadh (on the scale of) َفَعَلْتُ,  When we put the letters and harakah in the scale we get: َعَوَذْتُ
AVQ-1.4

Now we see that the waaw has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah so we turn the waaw into an alif.

AVQ-1.5

Now we are faced with two silent letters in a row.  When this occurs we look at the first of the silent letters.  If it is Harfu `illah and the letter before it has a harakah suiting it then we drop it.

AVQ-1.6

Now because the alif which was dropped was originally a waaw, they gave the faa of the word (here the `ayn) a harakah which suits it which is the dhammah.

AVQ-1.7

We can take this is a principle regarding the word which has Aynul-kalimah as a waaw Whenever Laamul-Kaalimah has a sukoon you will eventually drop the waaw.  Because whenever the Laamul-Kalimah will be silent, it will cause two silent letters in a row eventually, therefore we will end up dropping the `ayn always.

So when the laam is silent –  instead of going through all those steps, –  just drop the `ayn (and give the faa the harakah that suits the letter which was dropped). Qaala Allaahu Ta`aalaa:

وَإِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ

“And truly, I seek refuge (I have sought refuge) in my Lord and your Lord lest you stone me. (Ad-Dukhaan 44:20)

Conjugations (with the scale for chapter One verbs ) >>>

(The Maadhee is in the right column and the Corresponding Mudhaari` is opposite it in the left column)

AVQ-1

Notice that from  “fa`ala” onwards –  the laamul kalimah is not silent so we don’t drop the `aynul kalimah.  The Laam is not silenced so we keep the Waaw but we change it into an alif.  When we get tp the Feminine plural spoken about –  we see the laam (dhaal)  is silenced so we drop the ayn (waaw) and give the faa (ayn) a dhammah.

In conjugating the mudhaari` we shift the dhammah from the waaw to the vacant letter preceding it.

* NOTE *  Once we come across a certain type of verb, Ustaadh will explain it thoroughly (as he has done here explaining the principles and reasons for the conjugations of the mudhaari` and maadh), but once the verb of its like comes again, it (the conjugation of it) will not be explained again. 

EXAMPLES >>>

قَالَتْ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ مِنْكَ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَقِيًّا

“She said: “Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent (Allaah) from you, if you do fear Allaah.” (Mariam 19:18)

أَعُوذُ  is used for both genders: whether male or female.  Nooh said:

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِهِ عِلْمٌ

“Nuh (Noah) said: “O my Lord! I seek refuge with You from asking You that of which I have no knowledge.” (Hood 11:47)

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِنَ الْإِنْسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِنَ الْجِنِّ

‘And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter with the masculine among the jinns, (Hood 11:47)

~~~~~

End of Explanation of    أَعْوُذُ

~~~~~

 

VERB 2 >>> نَعْبُدُ

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You Alone we worship (Al-Faatihah 1:1)

It is from Chapter 1 –  Min baabi Nasara.  When we say “min baabi Nasara” we are saying two things:

  1. It is of Chapter One (fa`ala-yaf`ulu) and
  2. it is Muta`aadin

There is no principle necissitating this verb being of chapter one –  it was just heard this way (Sama`ee) from the Arabs.  Opposite of samaa`ee is qiyaasee. So whereas A`uudhu is of Chapter one due to the Qiyaas, Nabudu is of chapter one because it was heard that way.  And regarding the Qiyaas of Chapter One verbs we say: Al-Baabul – Awwal Qiyaasun fee kulli f`ilin `aynuhu waaw –  “The first chapter is a principle to every verb which has the `ayn as a waaw.”

 نَعْبُدُ  is on the scale of نَفْعُلُ  (meaning “we do”) So  نَعْبُدُ means “we worship.”

A Benefit

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You Alone we worship… (Al-Faatihah 1:1)

Why is it plural “we worship” when the one praying is a single person.  The Hikmah behind that is holding on to the jama`ah –  praying together in the jama`ah.

Conjugations >>>

AVQ-1.2

Ustaadh reccommends students to practice these conjugations using the charts he shared – doing 50 reps each day.

Examples >>>

 وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ  

And those who join others in worship with Allah say: “If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped aught but Him… (An-Nahl 16:35)

  وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَا عَبَدْتُمْ 

I do not worship that which you worship (Al-Kaafiruun 109:4)

   جَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ الطَّاغُوتَ

… those of whom (some) He transformed into monkeys and swines, those who worshipped Taghut (false deities);… (Al-Maa`idah 5:60)

  لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ

I worship not that which you worship. (Al-Kaafiruun 109:2)

   إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ  

 When he said to his father: “O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything?… (Maryam 19:42)

 

    قُلْ أَتَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا 

Say (O Muhammad to mankind): “How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or to benefit you? (Al-Maa’idah 5:76)

    قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا لِنَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَنَذَرَ مَا كَانَ يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا

They said: “You have come to us that we should worship Allah Alone and forsake that which our fathers used to worship…. (Al-A`raaf 7:70)

   وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ  

And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them,… (Yunus 10:18)

Additional Points >>>

Q: Where is the doer in “A`uudhu?”

A: It is hidden (dhameeru mustatir)  – “A`uudhu Ana” –   This is the first cases of the cases where it is wujuub (obligatory) that the doer is hidden (not shown by a faa`il or dhameer).  When the Mudhaari` is referred to the single speaker,  whether male or female –  the doer has to be hidden, not shown by a faa`il or a dhameer.

Q: Where is the doer in “na`budu?”

A: It is also hidden.  This is the second case where the doer has to be hidden.  When the Mudhaari` is used for the single speaker or the speaker with others, the faa’il has to be hidden.  if you show it, it is an emphasizing, it is not shown to be the doer.

There are 7 cases when the doer must be hidden and these are two of them.  Ustaadh will give us the rest in future duroos inshaa’Allaah.

~~~~~

End of Explanation of نَعْبُدُ

~~~~~

-END of DARS-

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

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