ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 2

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                                                                         ~~~~~                                Link to PDF NOTES

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

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We are studying the word itself individually before it being put into a sentence -the structure of the word-. When do we use more letters and when not and if we do what are the meanings for which we use this form.

Sarf technically means: Turning the source into different forms in order to express different meanings, which aren’t expressed except through their certain forms.

  • Each form has its own meaning and each meaning comes with its own form.

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The source, what is meant by it, is what is called in Arabic   المَصدَرُ (Al Masdar)

And what is meant here mainly is the ‘Verbal Noun’ in Arabic.

  • Don’t expect that those English words are exactly synonyms of the words mentioned in Arabic. They are just mentioned for the sake of explaining and translating and giving you a closer understanding to what is meant.  Arabic words can never be replaced and give the exact meaning, because each Arabic word has its own technical meaning.
  • The Masdar is the act itself regardless the time frame and the doer. For example: drinking, eating, talking, running, writing etc.

– Why have they decided that the word implying the verbal noun in Arabic is ‘Al Masdar’?

Due to it being the source from which many forms are made, in other words it is the starting point to build different forms.

For Example:


Here you notice that every form is different than the other in general  and that the letters of the ‘Verbal Noun’ (Masdar) are always there.

  • ضَربٌ : hitting
  • From dharb many forms are build. How? By transferring and rebuilding them into another form.
  • With this (i.e. dharb) word, whatever form you wish to build those three letters should always be with you.
  • ضَرَبَ (dharaba) , ضَرَبتُ (dharabtu) , ضَرَبتَ (dharabta),   ضَرَبتِ (dharabti), ضَرَبتُمَا (dharabtumaa), ضَرَبتُم (dharabtum),  ضَرَبنَا (dharabnaa),  ضَرَبَا (dharabaa)
  • Here in every single form you find the Dhaadh the Raa and the Baa
  • The letters which are found in almost every form, are called: Original/root letters
  • And other than the original/root letters are called Extra letters, because they have been added to the original/root letters.
  • We are going to be given principles that will give us the capability to build those forms by ourselves in shaa Allaah. And through those principles we are going to see how much of a perfect language Arabic is and how easy it is.

The word Forms, what does it include? It includes four things:

  1. The number of letters
  2. The harakaat
  3. The order
  4. The original and extra letters

The Harakaat

Harakaat means the different particular sounds that are pronounced with each letter (i.e. vowels)

The singular is Harakah

Linguistically it means: Movement

Technically it means: The signs which represent certain movements of the mouth.

  • Harakaat here is it used for the linguistic or technical meaning? The technical meaning.
  • Knowing the linguistic meaning helps you understand the technical meaning.


  1. The first sign they have called a fathah فَتحَة .

Linguistically this word means: A single opening.  They have used this name (i.e fathah) to Technically mean that sign, because it is made by the typical vertical opening of the mouth

  • Examples:

أَ : Aa  – بَ : Ba تَ : Ta ثَ : Tha جَ : Ja حَ : Ha

  • It looks like a tilted dash above the letter
  • And in pronunciation it gives an ‘a’ sound
  1. The second sign they have called a kasrah  كَسرَة

Linguistically this word means: a single breaking. They have used this name (i.e. kasrah) to Technically mean that sign, because it is made by the mouth breaking into a smile

  • Examples:

خِ : Khi ِد : Di ذِ  : Thi –  رِ : Ri زِ : Zi

  1. The third sign they have called a dhammah ضَمَّة

Linguistically this word means: a single joining together. They have used this name (i.e. dhammah) to Technically mean that sign, because it is made by joining your lips together in an O shape making Ooo sound

  • Examples:

سُ : Su شُ : Shu صُ : SU ضُ : DHU

  • The linguistic meaning is the technical meaning and more and the technical meaning is the linguistic meaning but specified.
  • When giving those harakaat don’t prolong it but district the sound, don’t let it lose but hold it down. When you say for example ‘Dee’ you’re saying this: دِي
  • ذِ ‘thi’ and not ‘zi’ with a the ‘Z’
  • Sheikhul Islaamu bnu Taymiyyah says: “That proofs that part of Arabic is obligatory upon each and every Muslim”.  And it is the part which corrects your prayer.  For example: Reading sooratul Faatihah and also the beginning of your prayer ‘Allaahu Akbar.’

If you say Aallaahu Akbar (trying to beautify it by prolonging the ‘A’ in the beginning),  you haven’t start your prayer yet, because when you say it like that, you are asking ‘Is Allaah Greater?’.  And is there any doubt in if Allaah is Greater? No there isn’t, so why are you asking then?

So here you prolonged what shouldn’t be prolonged, you added a letter.

And also some say: ‘Allaahu wa kbar’, some scholars said, that is not enough, because you don’t pronounce the ‘a’  ‘Allaahu Akbar’.

And also some say: ‘Allaahu Akbaar’, prolonging the ‘ba’, and this will result to a statement giving a meaning that is Kufr -not saying the one who said it is a Kaafir-. Akbaar is the plural of ‘kabr’, which is a type of a drum. So ‘Allaahu Akbaar’ will get the meaning of ‘Allaah is drums’ (a’udhu bilLaah).

Of topic >>>

Ustaadh mentioned during class that: ‘’ Many people start, but few are consistent, few are patient. So you have to be patient and finish it till the end. ‘’

In shaa Allaah Ustaadh hafidhahulLaah is doing his best to simplify it for us, so we should help him for him to help us by being consistent with those classes, even if we can’t attend it live we can listen to the recordings.

And be patient because knowledge comes only with patience. With reading the Quraan we see what hastiness did with those who were before us. It caused them to not learn and do a lot of trouble.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

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4 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 2

  1. Abdul Rahman February 1, 2015 at 8:08 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

    “The letters which are found in ALMOST every form, are called: Original/root letters”
    Do you mean, that the original letters are absent in some forms? Or is this a typo..

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

  2. zaiba binth hashim February 1, 2015 at 10:50 am Reply

    Walaikumu salam warahamtullahi wabarakatuh.
    The notes were typed exactly as ustaad said it walhamdulillah, however your question has been sent to him and he will soon reply bi idnillah. let us await his response Inshallah.

    jazakallahu khairan

  3. Abdul Rahman February 1, 2015 at 8:31 pm Reply

    wa iyyak
    Baarakallaahu feek

  4. Abdul Rahman February 4, 2015 at 10:36 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    Has the teacher mentioned anything with regards to this ?

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