بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
~~~~~ Link to PDF NOTES
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
The sounds that are made with the letters are of three:
- It was called a Fathah, because it linguistically means: ‘a single opening’, so they called the sign which represents the sound which is made by the typical opening of the mouth a fathah.
- Which is a tilted dash below the letter, and it was called a kasrah, because it linguistically means: ‘a single breaking’, so they wanted to find a word in the Arabic language that better expresses the sound made when the mouth breaks into a smile. They took the word ‘kasrah’, because of the meaning they both share.
- It was called a Dhammah, because it linguistically means: ‘a single joining together ’, so when they wanted a technical name for the sign which represents the sound made by the single joining of the mouth, they took the word ‘dhammah’, which implies the word ‘joining’ with that meaning – but they meant a particular joining according to the technical usage-.
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The Type of Words in Arabic
1. الاِسمُ (Alism) Noun
2. الفِعلُ (Al Fi’l) Verb
3. الحَرفُ (Al Harf)
الاسم : A word which gives you just one thing, which is the meaning
الفِعل : A word which gives you another thing along with the meaning, which is a certain time frame, where that meaning took place.
- The Verb which give you the meaning taking place in the Past (before the time of speech), is called: مَاضٍ (Maadh)
- The verb which gives you the meaning taking place in the Present (in the time of speech), is called: مُضَارعٌ (Mudhaari’)
- The verb which gives you the meaning requested to take place in the Future (after speech), is called: أمرٌ (Amr)
الحَرف : A word which gives you a meaning through other words which are mentioned with it.
- The fi’l gives you two things: 1. The meaning , 2. Certain time frame.
- Al Harf isn’t studied in Sarf so it doesn’t concern us. It is nice to know in itself, but not nice to know here. This because the proper methodology of seeking knowledge is putting things in its places, and asking about things in its right time.
- Examples for Alism:
الشَّمسُ : ‘The Sun’, it gives you nothing but that meaning, it doesn’t give you a time frame with it.
الأُستَاذُ : ‘The Teacher’, it gives you nothing but that meaning, it doesn’t give you a time frame with it.
القَلمُ : ‘The pen’, it gives you nothing but that meaning, it doesn’t give you a time frame with it
Sarf studies mainly the second (Al fi’l), then secondary the first (Alism).
- If you perfect Al Fi’l you will not have a problem with Alism. That means if you perfect Al Fi’l in how it works and how it is formed you will have no problem at all at understanding how Alism works.
The Scale >>>
What we are going to use to form words, and understand how they are formed:
A scale which the scholars of Arabic came up with to study the formation of word.
The scale is actually a word of three letters ف -ع – ل
- They have chosen this number of letters, due to it being the least number found in (Alism) and (Al Fi’l)
- The least number of letters there is in those words the lighter it becomes on the tongue.
- The lighter the word is the more it is used by the Arabs, because of their
MOTHER PRINCIPLE : “Seeking lightness in Speech.”
‘’ إِلتِمَاسُ الخِفَّةِ ‘’
- Which of the words are more used?
Three letters or four? Three
- And a Principle is Established b ased upon what happens more, or what happens less?
- Why those letters in particular?
Because those letters form the word which means: ‘Did’
- Didn’t we say earlier that Sarf mostly studies >>> verb?
- This because the business of Sarf is more verbs than nouns, so they chose the verb to be the scale.
- Therefore when the word فعل meant ‘did’ (which is inclusive to every verb, because it can represent every verb.) they chose it to be the scale.
- There is one verb which can be a substitute/alternative to any other verb. Which is فعل ‘did’ .
Did you see? I did
Did you hear? I did
Did you drink? I did
Did you eat? I did
Did you study? I did
Did you attend? I did
Did you do? I did .. etc.
- What is easier on the tongue ‘fa’ala’ or fa’lala? Fa’ala – And ‘Fahd’ or ‘Ja’far’? Fahd – And : ‘qatala’ or ‘dahraja’? Qatala. Why? Since there are less letters in a word it is easier then when there are four letters.
- Whatever is easier the Arabs use it more.
- They have words which consists of three and of four and of five and of six and of seven, and the more numbers of letters there is in a word the less that word is used. Why? Because of that Mother Principle: “Seeking lightness in speech.”
- For example:
Words with three letters : فَعَلَ – عَبَدَ – ضَرَبَ – شَرِبَ – سَمِعَ – ضَحِكَ – قَتَلَ
Words with four letters: دَحرَجَ – قَرطَبَ – وَسوَسَ – زَلزَلَ
Words with more than four letters: دَعلَبَك – حَضرَمَوت – بُزُرجَمِهرُ
Here you can see that the first group of words we hear a lot and the second group of word lesser and the third group even lesser to almost not.
The scholars when they studied the Arabic law (how the Arab speak), they were studying the words which were used more. This because usually what you make principles out of, is a frequent phenomenal.
- The first original letter should go on the first letter in the scale which is the ‘ ف’ , that is why we call any first original letter (The Faa)
- The second original letter should go on the second letter in the scale which is the ‘ ع’ , that is why we call any second original letter (The ‘Ayn)
- The third original letter should go on the third letter in the scale which is the ‘ ل’ , that is why we call any third original letter (The Laam)
- Give the same harakah given to the letter in the scale to the letter parallel to it.
Ustaadh gave us a group of root letters :
ض – ر – ب
ع – ب – د
ب – د – أ
س – ج – د
ض – ح – ك
س – م – ع
ش – ر – ب
ك – ب – ر
- If we want to make a past verb with these root letters we should match it to فَعَلَ or فَعِلَ or فَعُلَ
We take the first original letter and place it on the first space on the scale from right to left.
- The first original letter is ‘ ض’,so it goes on the first letter in the scale, which is the ‘ فَ ‘ , and give it the same harakah (a fathah) ضَ
- The second original letter is ‘ ر’ ,so it goes on the second letter in the scale, which is the ‘ عَ’, and give it the same harakah (a fathah) رَ
- The third original letter is ‘ ب’,so it goes on the third letter in the scale, which is the ‘ لَ’, and give it the same harakah (a fathah) بَ
This way we have formed the past verb from those root letters.
- ضرب implies ‘hitting’, so ضَرَبَ means: he hit
We have to do the same with the rest of the root words Ustaadh gave us, using the scale.
- With ع – ب – د and ب – د – أ and س – ج – د , we’re giving the ‘Ayn (second original letter) a Fathah.
- With ض – ح – ك and س – م – ع and ش – ر – ب , we are giving the ‘Ayn a Kasrah.
- With ك – ب – ر , we are giving the ‘Ayn a Dhammah.
~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~
الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله
Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah