ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 4

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                  ~~~~~                Link to PDF NOTES

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Review >>>

The first letter that should be on the scale is the ف

The second letter that should be on the scale is the ع

The third letter that should be on the scale is the ل

  • What should we place parallel on the ‘ ف’ ? The first original letter of the word.
  • What should we place parallel on the ‘ ع’? The second original letter of the word.
  • What should we place parallel on the ‘ ل’? The third original letter of the word.

What do we mean by the ‘extra letters’? Not the original letters/ that which is added to the original letters/ apart from the original letters

  • That which comes on ‘the faa’, what can we call it? The faa of the word.
  • That which comes on ‘the ‘ayn’, what can we call it? The ‘ayn of the word.
  • That which comes on ‘the laam’, what can we call it? The laam of the word.

Example:

ضَربٌ , which means: hitting

This word is a ‘verbal noun.’

  • How do we call a ‘verbal noun’ in Arabic? Masdar مَصدَرٌ
  • In Sarf what do we do with the Masdar? We turn it into different forms.
  • Why do we turn it into different forms? To express different meanings.

If we want to turn this Masdar into a Past Verb, we either match it with فَعَلَ or  فَعِلَ or  فَعُلَ .

As for    ضَربٌ it is turned into فَعَلَ .

  • We bring the ‘ ض’ the first original letter over ‘the faa’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ فَ’, which is a fathah ‘ ضَ

We can call this letter ‘The faa’, because it is the first original letter of the word.

  • We bring the ‘ ر’ the second original letter over ‘the ‘ayn’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ عَ’, which is a fathah ‘ رَ

We can call this letter ‘The ‘ayn’, because it is the second original letter of the word.

  • We bring the ‘ ب’ the third original letter over ‘the laam’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لَ’, which is a fathah ‘ بَ

We can call this letter ‘The laam’, because it is the third original letter of the word.

We do the same with the rest of the words given to us in the previous class.

  • Which is correct, to say: “The first letter”, or “The first original”? The first original letter.  Don’t say just ‘the first letter’, because it might not be original.
  • For example with the word ‘ فَاعَلَ ’, the second letter ‘ا’ is the second letter of the word but not the second original That is why it is important to say ‘original letter’ and not just ‘letter’
  • It is better to say ‘original’ than ‘root’, because you have to speak in every science according to the language spoken in it.
  • In every science you have to use the terms that are used according to that science.

New Material >>>

We should not worry about the meanings at first, ustaadh will give it to use eventually. That which we should be concerned about is knowing how to utilize that meaning according to what we want to say.

  • So regardless to what the word ‘dharb’ means, we want to express someone doing this action in the past. Ustaadh will tell us to match it with fa’ala, so we are utilizing this word to make the form which gives us the meaning which we want to use with this meaning.
  • If we want to convey that a person did it in the past, there is a way to say it. If we want to convey that a person is doing it now, there is a way to say it. If we want to convey that a group of people doing it now, there is a way to say it… etc
  • For now we should worry about the formation than about the meanings.
  • The word ‘ فعل’ in the scale is not used for the sake of its meaning ‘he did’, but for the sake of building/weighing forms.

When there is an extra letter over three in the word weighed, then it has to be one of three types:

  1. An extra letter according to the scale, but NOT to the word weighed.

Example:

Ustaadh gave us the following original letters :

و س و س

Here the scale of the four letter verb for المَاضِي (the past verb) is on the scale of   فَعْلَلَ

  • It is not on the scale of فَعْلَلَ, because having four harakaat in a row is difficult to pronounce. And the Mother Principle of the Arabs is: “Seeking lightness in Speech.”
  • Reminder: The word has from three up to four original letters.
  • This word has four original letters.
  • The fourth original letter of the word weighed, has no letter on the scale to represent it.

scale waswasa

  • We bring the first original letter ‘ و’ over ‘the faa’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ فَ’, which is a fathah ‘ وَ
  • We bring the second original letter ‘ س’ over the ‘ayn, and silence it ‘ سْ
  • We bring the third original letter‘ و’  over ‘the laam’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لَ’, which is a fathah ‘ وَ

With the fourth original letter  ‘ س’, we are facing a problem. There is no letter to represent the fourth original letter.

In this case you are to add an extra laam, to represent the fourth original letter.

– This is strictly to when there is an extra letter according to the scale, but NOT to the word weighed.

  • We bring the fourth original letter ‘ س’ over ‘the second laam’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لَ’, which is a fathah ‘ سَ

The way to express this weighing is:

وَسْوَسَ is on the scale of  فَعْلَلَ

  • In shaa Allaah ustaadh will teach us also the way to say it in Arabic.
  • ضَرَبَ is on the scale of فَعَلَ
  • سَمِعَ is on the scale of فَعِلَ
  • كَبُرَ is on the scale of  فَعُلَ
  • An extra laam which represents the fourth original letter.
  • وَسْوَسَ : He whispered
  1. An Extra letter which is due to doubling an original letter in the word weighed.

Example:

سَـمِعَ : He heard , and it is on the scale of فَعِلَ

And we want to weigh  سَـمَّعَ (samma’a)

  • The difference between سَـمِعَ and  سَــمَّعَ , is that in سَـمَّعَ the meem has been doubled  (two meems) and in  سَـمِعَ , there is only one meem.

سَـمَّعَ is originally  سَـمْمَعَ – that’s how we read it, but not how we write it-

Principle: When having two identical letters in a row and the first is silent (doesn’t hold a harakah), we merge it into the second.

To symbolize that merging they use this sign (ّ) and they place over it the harakah of the second identical letter.

This sign is called a Shaddah  شَدَّةٌ

Linguistically it means: Pulling

Technically it means: The sign which expresses the sound of pulling the letter with you as you read.

  • Here we have two meems in a row and the first one is silent , so we are able to merge the first letter into the second سـمِمَعَ >>>  سَـمَعَ
  • Now with it being merged سَـمَعَwe can’t tell it is, so to symbolize that merging we use this sign ( ّ)   سَـمّعَ
  • After that we place over that sign (shaddah) the harakah of the second identical letter , which is the fathah here   سَـمّعَ >>>  سَـمَّعَ
  • This sign shows you that there were two identical letters which were merged.
  • If the second identical letter had a fathah we place a fathah on that sign (shaddah), if it had a kasrah we place a kasrah on the shaddah, if it had a dhammah we place a dhammah on the shaddah.

 

How to use it on the scale:

سـ – مـ – مـ – ـع

The second identical letter is an Extra letter (here the second identical letter is a meem)

  • We bring the ‘ س ’ the first original letter, and place it over the ‘faa’, and give it the same harakah, which is a fathah  ‘ سَ
  • We bring the ‘ م’ the second original letter, and place it over the ‘’ayn’, and give it the same harakah, which is the fathah ‘ مَ
  • We bring the ‘ ع’ the third original letter, and place it over the ‘laam’, and give it the same harakah, which is a fathah ‘ عَ

We placed all the original letters parallel to the word scale فعل

Q: What do we do when there is an extra letter which is due to doubling an original letter in the word weighed?  

A: In this case we double the letter in the scale which is parallel to the letter doubled in the word weighed.

  • Ask yourself the following questions:

1. What is the extra letter which is doubled? The Meem

2.To what is it parallel (in this case the Meem)? It is parallel to the ‘Ayn

Since the Meem is doubled and it is parallel to the ‘Ayn, we are going to double the ‘Ayn.

سممع

When having two identical letters in a row and the first one is silent we can apply the principle, and merge the first identical letters into the second and put a sign (shaddah) expressing that merging, and place on it the harakah of the second merged letter.

سمّع

We say:  سَـمَّعَ is on the scale of  فَعَّلَ

When there is an Extra letter which is due to doubling an original letter in the word weighed, we simply double the letter parallel to it in the scale.

  • سَـمَّعَ : He made someone hear

الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:  (click image to view at 100%)

sarf_4.1

sarf_4.2

sarf_4.3

2 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 4

  1. Abu Shuayb January 13, 2015 at 10:45 am Reply

    As salaamu alaykum
    Alhamdulillaah
    May Allah subhana wa ta’alaa bless and reward all of you who posting the classes. AMIN I have a few technicalities at this time, so I’m asking if you can continue to link each class to the “PDF” Insha Allah Class 4 isn’t linked and I patiently waiting on 5 Insha Allah… Barakullah feekum jazakullah kulli khayran Amin

    • sarf4sisters January 13, 2015 at 11:40 am Reply

      Walaykumus salaam warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh

      Ameen – May Allaah make things easy for us all. If you mean notes in PDF form, then Inshaa’Allaah they will be linked from blog as well as the ETP wordpress site.

      Classes 4 and 5 will be forthcoming inshaa’Allaah. May Allaah reward you for your patience!

      Umm Omar

Ask a question or leave a comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: