بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
~~~~~ link to PDF NOTES
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
When there is an extra letter over three in the word weighed, then it has to be one of three types:
- An extra letter according to the scale, but NOT to the word weighed.
- An Extra letter which is due to doubling an original letter in the word weighed.
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- An Extra letter which is not of the first two
Basically this is an extra letter according to both the scale and the word weighed.
This type of extra letters is one of ten letters:
س – أ – ل – ت – م – و – ن – ي – هـ
- Meaning, that which isn’t an original letter according to the scale neither the word weighed nor due to doubling it in the word weighed.
- These letters are not propositions ‘ الـحُرُوف’, but letters which are used to build a word. Like مِنْ, عَلَى, بـ , فِي, س, سَوفَ etc, and this we won’t get in Sarf, but in Grammer.
In this case we copy then paste the extra letter in the scale.
Example of The Hamzah ‘ أ ’ as an extra letter:
Turning سَـمِعَ into أَسـمَعَ
- Before we turned سَـمِعَ into سَـمَّعَ, by doubling the meem.
Weighing the word:
- If we want to weigh correctly, we start with the original letters.
- The first original letter
1st: We bring the first original letter, which is the ‘ سْ’ and place it over the ‘ ف’ , and silence it just as the word weighed ‘ فْ’
2nd : We bring the second original letter, which is the ‘ مَ’ and place it over the ‘ ع’ and give it a fathah just as the word weighed ‘ عَ’
3rd: We bring the third original letter, which is the ‘ عَ’ and place it over the ‘ ل’ and give it a fathah just as the word weighed ‘ لَ’
4th: We bring the extra letter, which is the ‘ أَ ’, and bring it down as it is (copy paste it from the word weighed to the scale.)
- The hamzah here is additional and there is no letter representing it in the scale.
- Is this letter an original letter in the word weighed? No, it isn’t – So it is not of the first type.
- Is it due to doubling an original letter? No, it isn’t – So it is not of the second type. This means that it is of the third type (An extra letter according to both the scale and the word weighed.)
- أَسمَعَ : He made someone hear, Just As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:
وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّـهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لَّأَسْمَعَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّوا وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen, and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away, averse (to the truth). [8:23]
- A beautiful benefit in this verse: They do have the hearing sense, but here it goes about the hearing which ‘He would indeed have made them benefit from what they hear.’
- For example: There are different types of people who attend the class. There are some who attend and hear to benefit, but some who hear not to benefit. This is why the etiquettes of seeking knowledge is important.
The people of knowledge say: “How much benefit you get from your teacher, depends upon how much you trust his knowledge.”
Example of The Alif, Seen and Taa as extra letters:
خَرَجَ : He went out
خَرَجَ is on the scale of فَعَلَ
Turning خَرَجَ into اِسْتَخْرَجَ
- How many letters do we have over the three original letters? Three
- What are they? The Alif, The Seen and the Taa
- Are these extra letters of the first type? No
- Of the second type? No, They are of the third type.
Because it is of the third type we bring the extra letters from the word weighed as it is in the scale (copy paste).
اِسْتَخْرَجَ is on the scale of اِسْتَفعَلَ
اِسْتَخْرَجَ means: He took out
They added the letters استـ to expresses ‘seeking’ or ‘asking’. It is mostly used for that meaning. Whether that seeking is literal or metaphorical.
اِستَغفَرَ is from غَفَرَ , which means: He forgave, so اِستَغفَرَ means: He asked for forgiveness
اِستَعَانَ : He asked/sought for aid/help ( عَون)
اِستَغَاثَ : He sought relief from hardship ( غَوث)
اِستَسقَى : He asked for rain/water ( سُقيَا)
The point now is to just give you some examples, and each form will be discussed in its own.
Example of The Yaa as an extra letter:
Turning سَـمِعَ into سَـمِيع
The ‘ ي’ is an extra letter.
Because this ‘yaa’ is of the third type, we bring the extra letter from the word weighed as it is in the scale (copy paste).
- سَـمِيع : The All hearer (One of the Names of Allaah)
سَـمِيع is on the scale of فَعِيل
- In similar forms we have: بَصِير, قَدِير, عَلِيم, رَحِيم, مُبِين , this ‘yaa’ keeps coming in the same place (between the ‘ayn and the laam)
Example of The Meem and the Waaw as extra letters:
Turning سَـمِعَ into مَسمُوع
The first ‘ م’ and the ‘ و’ are extra letters.
Because the ‘meem’ and ‘waaw’ are of the third type, we bring the extra letter from the word weighed as it is in the scale (copy paste).
- مَسمُوع : What is heard
مَسمُوع is on the scale of مَفعُول
- This pattern (scale), is the receiver (the thing which is done to)
- Some other examples:
مَـخلُوق : What is created
مَـجمُوع : What is gathered
مَفهُوم : What is understood
مَقطُوع : What is cut
مَـمدُود : What is extended
مَـمنُوع : What is prohibited
- Does this not prove to you that Sarf comes before Nahw (Grammer)?
الله تعالى أعلم والحمد لله والصلاة
والسلام على رسول الله
~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~
Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah