بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
~~~~~ Link to PDF Notes
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
In the previous class we were given examples on following the four levels of reaching to the truth. We also learned on how negations were understood.
BENEFITS FROM THE REVIEW
PRINCIPLE: ALL ISLAAMIC SCIENCES ARE STRONGLY RELATED!
Based on the principle mentioned above, whoever was under the impression that you can study a certain science of the Islaamic sciences independently and understand it completely without being in touch with the other sciences then know that this is a big misconception.
PRINCIPLE: THE SCHOLARS OF CREED START THEIR BOOKS AND LECTURES WITH DEFINING THE SOURCES OF EVIDENCE.
Why? Because all matters which they explain are matters upon which the belief of the heart is based and here we are reviewing the principles of Eemaan which is something that you would tie your heart onto and would not doubt on and that you are certain about it. This belief is only taken from what has reached to the level of certainty and this is what was authenticated by way of narration according to the principle which the scholar laid down.
Continuing with regards to how negations must be understood.
- Firstly existence.
- Then validity.
- Finally perfection.
With regards to the third type, which is perfection is an example in Creed, there is a hadeeth which states that:
‘None of you believe until Allaah and His Messenger are more loved to him than anything else.’
Ponder on his (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) statement where he says, ‘none of you believe..’ Doesn’t it seem literally that this negation is the negation of validity? Yes it does! Meaning that if you were not told the real meaning of this hadeeth would it not mean that there is no Eeman for him? Of course it would mean as such! You might falsely interpret this hadeeth by saying that whoever falls into any sins didn’t love Allaah and His Messenger (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam). Therefore, him falling into sins means he is not a believer completely. But that’s not how it works. Because, Allaah mentioned people in Qur’aan and the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) also mentioned sinners in his Sunnah and he said that they will enter Paradise even though they sinned but they are still exposed to punishment. For example : We have a hadeeth,
“Take out from the hellfire anyone who has the least bit of Eemaan in his heart” (Saheeh Al-Bukhaariyy)
To emphasize this more, the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) in a hadeeth said, which is recorded and authenticated,
“My intercession is for the Major sinner of my Nation” ( Abu Dawood Hadeeth : 4739)
The above hadeeth talks about the Intercession. If you put this hadeeth (i.e. None of you believe…) with those two Hadeeth above, gives the meaning of the negation of perfection that is why if you go to any interpretation of Bukhaaree, Muslim or Abu Dawood they always write this word, ”None of you (completely) believe…”
We take another hadeeth:
”None of you (completely) believe until he loves for his brother Muslim what he loves for himself” (Al-Bukhaariyy, Hadeeth of Anas Raddhuyallaahu `anhu Hadeeth:13).
The scholars put all of those Ahadeeth together to conciliate between those ahadeeth to specify and reach to the correct understanding. This is negation we talked about. In this Hadeeth: ”None of you (completely) believe until he loves for his brother Muslim what he loves for himself”. I ask you, the one who kills Brother Muslim, did he love for his brother Muslim what he loved for himself? No. The one who lies Brother Muslim, did he love for his brother Muslim what he loved for himself? No. The one who abuses Brother Muslim, did he love for his brother Muslim what he loved for himself? No. This is even in the Qur’aan in Soorah 49: 9-10 where Allaah says:
وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّىٰ تَفِيءَ إِلَىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both, but if one of them rebels against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which rebels till it complies with the Command of Allah; then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are equitable…. (49/9)
إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy. (49/10)
He called those who fell into fighting together, ”believers”. Concerning Allaah’s statement: ”The believers are nothing else than brothers ( in Islaamic religion)”. Here it is the Brothers in Eemaan and in Islaam. This means that the negation of the belief in this hadeeth is in the sense of perfection because Al Eemaan increases with the good deeds and decreases with the bad deeds. That is why in Al-Bukhariyy : Book 2 the hadeeth states that, ”Eemaan it increases and decreases.” That is why Allaah ‘Azza wa Jalla restricted to us to certain understanding, as in Soorah 2 verse 137,
فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (2/137)
Here, the belief has to go according to the like of which belief? Here by ”you” it is meant (the Prophet – Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam – and his companions). As, ”تم’ (tum – attached pronoun) in Arabic refers to plural (all of you. Another verse in Soorah An-Nisaa (4) verse 150,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا
And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad [Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam]) after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell – what an evil destination. (4/150)
Who are meant by the believers here? The Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and especially the Companions. Some of you might say, “bring us more proof that the believers are meant here are the companions.” Because, Allaah in the Qur’aan witnessed for companions, that they are believers. Meaning witnessed Eemaan for them as In Soorah 59 verse 10,
وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful. (59:10)
If you want a totally clear verse that cannot be understood wrong no matter how wrongly it can be misinterpreted is in Soorah 9 verse 100,
وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansar (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhajirun) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him.” (9:100)
Muhajiroon [emigrants from Makkah] plus Ansaar [helpers from Madeenah] equals Companions. This is the third source of evidence, the unanimous agreement of companions. This verse implies that those who follow believers’ way, Allaah is completely pleased with them and those who do not, Allaah is completely unpleased with them. And those who follow them not exactly, they have the part of that pleasure but not as those who follow them exactly.
In shaa Allaah in all future classes this is how our way is going to be. We will teach you how the scholars did it. They bring the verse of Qur’aan and then they bring the hadeeth of Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasallam and then they bring the quotes of companions and their followers in truth explaining those verses and Ahadeeth so that we can understand it in proper manner.
~ End Of Dars ~
Notes transcribed by: Aisha Bint Akram and Umm Abdillah Zaiba bint Hashim.