ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 9

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                                                               ~~~~                         LINK to PDF NOTES

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Continuation of Chapter One >>>

Chapter One is a principle (pattern followed) in three types of Verbs:

1- Whenever the ‘ ع’  is a ‘ و

2- Whenever the ‘ ل’  is a  ‘ و

  • The Laam here is the third Original letter (The Laam of the Word)

Example of the second type:

We are supposed to match these root letters with فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ  , because it is of Chapter One and it goes according to the principle “Whenever the ‘ ل’  is a ‘ و

Using the Scale to weigh the Root Letters  >>>

Chapter One, using the second type of Verbs which are taken as a principle to this Chapter:

‘Whenever theل’  is a ‘ و’’

The Maadh, which is on the scale of   فَعَل

  • The past verb

د.ع.و

1st: We bring the First Original Letter  the ‘ د’ and place it over the ‘ ف’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ فَ’, which is a fathah ‘ دَ

2nd: We bring the Second Original Letter  the ‘ ع’ and place it over the ‘ع’ (‘ayn of the word), and give it the same harakah as the ‘ عَ’, which is a fathah ‘ عَ

3rd: We bring the Third Original Letter  the ‘ و’ and place it over the ‘ ل’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لَ’, which is a fathah ‘ وَ

Scale da'awa

ب.د.و

1st: We bring the First Original Letter  the ‘ ب’ and place it over the ‘ ف’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ فَ’, which is a fathah ‘ بَ

2nd: We bring the Second Original Letter  the ‘ د’ and place it over the ‘ ع’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘عَ’, which is a fathah ‘ دَ

3rd: We bring the Third Original Letter  the ‘ و’ and place it over the ‘ ل’, and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لَ’, which is a fathah ‘ وَ

scale badawa

We do the same with the following root letters:

ب.ل.و

s. balawa 

ت.ل.و

s. talawa

ر.ج.و

s. rajawa

ج.ل.و

s. jalawa

ح.ب.و

s. habawa

د.ن.و

s. danawa

ق.س.و

s. qasawa

  • We notice that the third original letter is a Waaw is in all the given root letters.

There is something peculiar about these Verbs according to a General Principle Ustaadh  حفظه الله  gave us, which says:

 “ If the ‘ و’ or the  ‘ ي’ had a Harakah (i.e. Fathah, Kasrah, or Dhammah) and the letter before had a Fathah, we turn the ‘ و’ or the ‘ ي’ into an ‘ ا’ ”

In the example mentioned above, we see that in all the Verbs the Laam of the word is a ‘ و’ with a harakah (a fathah) and it is preceded by a letter that has a Fathah, this means that we can apply this General Principle in all the Verbs, by turning the ‘ و’ into an ‘ ا

  • This is what the Arabs do to every Verb of this kind.

da'awa da'aa

  • He called/ invoked

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

And who is better in speech than he who [says: “My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness),” and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allah’s (Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: “I am one of the Muslims.” [41:33]

badawa badaa

  • It appeared

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لَافْتَدَوْا بِهِ مِن سُوءِ الْعَذَابِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَبَدَا لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّـهِ مَا لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَحْتَسِبُونَ

And those who did wrong (the polytheists and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), if they had all that is in earth and therewith as much again, they verily, would offer it to ransom themselves therewith on the Day of Resurrection from the evil torment, and there will become apparent to them from Allah, what they had not been reckoning. [39:47]

balawa balaa

  • He tested

talawa talaa

  • He recited/ read
  • It can also mean: He followed

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا

And by the moon as it follows it (the sun); [91:2]

rajawa rajaa

  • He hoped

jalawa jalaa

  • It cleared out

habawa habaa

  • He crawled

danawa danaa

  • He/it came closer

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّىٰ

Then he [Jibrael (Gabriel)] approached and came closer, [53:8]

qasawa qasaa

  • He/it became hard/harsh
  • You can use it literally or metaphorically

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَـٰكِن قَسَتْقُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

When Our Torment reached them, why then did they not believe with humility? But their hearts became hardened, and Shaitan (Satan) made fair-seeming to them that which they used to do. [6:43]

The Mudaari’, which is on the scale of   يَفعُلُ

  • The Present Verb

د.ع.و

1st: We bring the ‘ ي’  in the beginning, which is one of the letters of the Mudaari’

2nd: We give it a fathah ‘ يَـــ

3rd: We bring the First Original Letter the ‘ د’ and place it over the ‘ ف’(faa of the word), and because the ‘ ف’ is silence (doesn’t have any harakah) we silence the ‘daal’            يَد

4th: We bring the Second Original Letter the ‘ ع’ and place it over the ‘ ع’ (‘ayn of the word), and give it the same harakah as the ‘ ع’(‘ayn of the word), which is a dhammah ‘     يَدعُــ

5th: We bring the Third Original Letter  the ‘ و’ and place it over the ‘ل’(laam of the word), and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لُ’, which is a dhammah يَدعُوُ

s yad'uwu

ب.د.و

1st: We bring the ‘ ي’  in the beginning, which is one of the letters of the Mudaari’

2nd: We give it a fathah ‘ يَـــ

3rd: We bring the First Original Letter the ‘ ب’ and place it over the ‘ ف’(faa of the word), and because the ‘ ف’ is silence (doesn’t have any harakah) we silence the يَـبـ

4th: We bring the Second Original Letter the ‘ د’ and place it over the ‘ ع’ (‘ayn of the word), and give it the same harakah as the ‘ ع’, which is a dhammah ‘    يَبدُ

5th: We bring the Third Original Letter  the ‘ و’ and place it over the ‘ ل’ (laam of the word), and give it the same harakah as the ‘ لُ’, which is a dhammah    يَيدُوُ

s yabduwu

We do the same with the following root letters:

  • This because there is a Principle which covers them all.
  • That is why Principles are important whether you have it here or in any other Science, you are relaxed and see things unlike others.
  • As they say: الجُنُونُ فُنُونٌ  , which means: Insanity is of many colors

ب.ل.و

s yabluwu 

ت.ل.و

s  yatluwu

ر.ج.و

s yarjuwu

ج.ل.و

s yajluwu

 

ح.ب.و

s yahbuwu

د.ن.و

s yadnuwu

ق.س.و

s yaqsuwu

Here we notice that the ‘ و’  has a Dhammah, and the Dhammah is heavy on the Waaw and this causes heaviness in Speech, and we know by the Mother Principle that: Arabs Seek Lightness in Speech.”

There is a Principle that says: “The Dhammah is heavy on the ‘ و’ so it is moved to the letter before IF it is Vacant (from any Harakah).”

“IF you can’t Move Remove.”

This means that the first thing we try to do is to look to the letter before and see if it is vacant from any Harakah so that we can Move the Dhammah on the ‘و’ to it. In this case it isn’t, so that means Remove.

  • We can’t do the same like with: يَقُولُ , يَزُولُ, يَبُولُ, يَتُوبُ
  • We simply remove the Dhammah
  • The bring the meaning of the Mudaari’ from its Maadh.
  • Why do we bring the Waaw back in the Mudaari’ and we do not keep the Alif that we turned in the Maadh from the Waaw? This because we are forming the Mudaari’ from the Original letters of the Maadh. The reason why we do not turn the Waaw into an Alif in the Mudaari’ is because although the Waaw has a harakah, but the letter before it doesn’t have a Fathah for it to be turned into an Alif, so the Principle of turning the Waaw into an Alif doesn’t apply here.
  • Sukoon = No Harakah

yad'uwu yad'u

  • He calls/ invokes

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ مَن لَّا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ

And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them? [46:5]

yabduwu yabdoo

  • It appears

yabluwu yabloo

  • He tests

yatluwu yatloo

  • He recites/ reads
  • He follows

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Those (who embraced Islam from Bani Israel) to whom We gave the Book [the Taurat (Torah)] [or those (Muhammad’s Peace be upon him companions) to whom We have given the Book (the Quran)] recite it (i.e. obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones that believe therein. And whoso disbelieves in it (the Quran), those are they who are the losers. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi. Vol. 2, Page 95). [2:121]

 

yarjuwu yarjoo

  • He hopes

Asالله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

Say (O Muhammad SAW): “I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God i.e. Allah). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.” [18:110]

  • The Meeting includes the Seeing

yajluwu yajloo

  • It clears out

yahbuwu yahboo

  • He crawls

yadnuwu yadnoo

  • He/it comes close

yaqsuwu yaqsoo

  • He/it becomes hard/harsh

Chapt 1 Maadh Mudaari' Second t ype

Homework >>>

Bring the following Root letters on the scale of  فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ  (Chapter One), and apply the Principles given.

Example:

Homework 2 Example

Exercise:

خ.ل.و

س.ط.و

ص.ب.و

ع.د.و

غ.د.و

ن.ب.و

غ.ل.و

ق.ف.و

خ.ط.و

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

sarf_9.1

sarf_9.2

sarf_9.3

sarf_9.4

sarf_9.5

5 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 9

  1. Abdul Rahman February 3, 2015 at 2:05 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

    In the notes,

    1)

    “As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

    وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

    And who is better in speech than he who [says: “My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness),” and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allah’s (Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: “I am one of the Muslims.” [41:33]”

    2)

    “As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

    وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لَافْتَدَوْا بِهِ مِن سُوءِ الْعَذَابِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَبَدَا لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّـهِ مَا لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَحْتَسِبُونَ

    And those who did wrong (the polytheists and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), if they had all that is in earth and therewith as much again, they verily, would offer it to ransom themselves therewith on the Day of Resurrection from the evil torment, and there will become apparent to them from Allah, what they had not been reckoning. [39:47]”

    3)

    “As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

    وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا

    And by the moon as it follows it (the sun); [91:2]”

    In all these cases , isn’t the maadhin mentioned? if that is so, then why is the interpretation of the meanings not showing a past verb?
    I am referring to the words “invites” , “will become apparent” and “follows”

    • sarf4sisters February 3, 2015 at 9:41 am Reply

      Walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh – It was mentioned by our teacher in a previous class that these cases would be explained in Balaaghah class (balaghaah is eloquence of speech). If you would like further clarification please ask it of the teacher at the end of one of the class sessions Inshaa’Allaah.

      May Allaah grant us all understanding of the language and understanding of our Deen.

      -Umm Omar

  2. Abdul Rahman February 3, 2015 at 6:55 pm Reply

    Aameen.
    Allright Baarakallaahu feek. I don’t attend the classes online. I just refer to your notes.
    Jazaakallaahu khayran for writing his words down.
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

  3. Abdul Rahman February 7, 2015 at 7:17 am Reply

    Jazaakallaahu khayran.
    I am aware that there are recordings. But i prefer to write down from your notes.
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

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