ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 10

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                            ~~~~~          Link to PDF NOTES

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Continuation of Chapter One >>>

Chapter One is a principle (pattern followed) in three types of Verbs:

1- Whenever the ‘ ع’  is a ‘ و

2- Whenever the ‘ ل’  is a  ‘ و

3- Whenever the ‘ ع’ and the ‘ ل’ are identical, provided that the verb is transitive.

Transitive is called in Arabic  مُتَعَدٍّ  ‘Muta’addin’

  • Transitive is when there are two parties involved in the action. One doing it (The Doer) and another receiving it/taking its effect (The Receiver).
  • Intransitive is when there is only one party involved in the action, which is the Doer
  • If you use a proposition, that means that the Verb is Intransitive
  • As long as we are using an intermediary between the verb and the object then this is Intransitive. If there is no intermediary between the verb and the object then this is Transitive.

Examples:

Laughing

– Does it have to do with the receiver? No

  • You say: I laughed, and you don’t say: I laughed it/him/her. Laughing only has to do with a doer
  • It is Intransitive

Sleeping

  • He slept  ‘نَامَ’
  • It is Intransitive

Crying

  • He cried
  • It is intransitive

Hitting

  • He hit
  • It is transitive, because there is one hitting (the doer), and one being hit (the receiver).
  • I hit it, here you don’t say: I hit on/for it

Sitting

-Do you say: I sat the chair, or do you say: I sat on the chair? I sat On

  • Here we are using an intermediary
  • It is intransitive

Every Action has to be one of two

1-Either it has a Doer and a Receiver.

2-Or only a Doer

When an Action involves a doer and a receiver , it is Transitive, like saying:

Zaid hit ‘Amr

Zaid wrote a book

  • Writing has a writer(doer), and something written ( receiver).

Zaid saw a man

  • Seeing has one seeing (doer) and someone seen (receiver)

Zaid ate the food

  • subject and object – trying to take advantage of the English just to get our understanding close to the Arabic. That is why our Noble Ustaadh حفظه الله is not going deep in using much English terms neither Arabic terms, to make it as easy as possible for us in shaa Allaah. Until he converts us to a certain extend of Arabic then in shaa Allaah he will start introducing us with more Arabic terms. As for now we are still in the beginning.
  • In Arabic they use the ‘ هــ’ , for transitive, like: ضَرَبَهُ ‘he hit him’
  • They don’t say ضَحِكَهُ , using the ‘haa’, because it is intransitive

Example:

Building the Verbs on the Scale of فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ

Chapter one is a Principle to these type of Verbs.

That means whenever you find three root letters and the ‘Ayn and the Laam are identical, provided that the verb is transitive, it automatically follows Chapter One.

The Root Letters:

أ- م – م

س- ب- ب

ع- د- د

م- د- د

ر- ج- ج

ح- د- د

ك- ب- ب

د- س- س

ش- د- د

Bringing the Root Letters to the مَاض of Chapter One, which is on the scale of فَعَلَ  

أ- م – م

s. amama

س- ب- ب

s. sababa

ع- د- د

s. 'adada

م- د- د

s. madada

ر- ج- ج

rajaja

ح- د- د

s. hadada

ك- ب- ب

s. kababa

د- س- س

s. dasasa

ش- د- د

s. shadada

This is not how the Arabs say it.

Here we notice heaviness, because two identical letters are in a row that are both having a harakah. Due to this heaviness we go back to the Mother Principle: “Arabs seek lightness in Speech.”

Principle: Having two identical letters in a row with both holding a harakah is heavy

The way to get rid of such a heaviness is to merge the identical letters.

Merging has a rule:

The first identical letter has to have no harakah (silent).

  • Harakah (any harakah)
  • Note: Every Principle has Exceptions.

Going back to what we have taken as a Reminder:

يَقوُلُ               يَدعُوُ

–  What was the problem with يَقوُلُ ? Heaviness

–  How is this heaviness caused? The Dhammah being on the Waaw

–  What is the heaviness in يَدعُوُ ? The same, the Dhammah being on the Waaw.

–  Did we do the same with يَقوُلُ as we did with يَدعُوُ ? No, we didn’t

Here we go back to the saying: “If you can’t Move Remove.”

– Which of the two did we Move? يَقوُلُ , we moved the dhammah on the Waaw to the Qaaf (vacant letter before the waaw), and ended up saying:  يَقُولُ

– And which one did we Remove? يَدعُوُ , we weren’t able to Move the Dhammah on the Waaw to the letter before it, because it was occupied and not vacant, so we had to Remove it. We ended up saying  يَدعُو

With this being said, we are going to follow the same concept of ‘If you can’t Move Remove.’

The two identical letters together in those verbs are currently in a state of Heaviness.

Our objective is to have the first Identical letter silent, so we can be able to merge those two identical letters together.

In أَمَمَ , can we Move the harakah on the first identical letter (the meem) to the letter before it (the hamzah)? No we can’t, because the hamzah is occupied and not vacant.

So here we go to the saying: “If you can’t Move Remove.”

And because we can’t Move the harakah of the first identical letter to the letter before it, we Remove it

amama

  • The sukoon is placed to emphasize that the harakah isn’t there anymore

Now the coast is clear to merge the two identical letters.

amma

  • He lead/ sought
  • We merge the two meems and give it a Shaddah with the harakah of the second identical letter, which is the Fathah.

We do the same to the rest:

sabba

  • He cursed

'adda

  • He counted/considered

madda

  • He/it stretched out/ elongated something

rajja

  • He shook

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

إِذَا رُجَّتِ الْأَرْضُ رَجًّا

When the earth will be shaken with a terrible shake.  [56:4]

  • رُجَّت here is passive

hadda

  • He prevented/stopped/restricted

kabba

  • He/it pored heavily/ dropped.

dassa

  • He hid

shadda

  • He pulled.

Bringing the Root Letters to the مضارع of Chapter One, which is on the scale of يَفعُلُ  

أ- م – م

s. ya-mumu

س- ب- ب

s. yasbubu

ع- د- د

s. ya'dudu

م- د- د

s. yamdudu

ر- ج- ج

yarjuju

ح- د- د

yahdudu

ك- ب- ب

s. yakbubu

د- س- س

s. yadsusu

ش- د- د

s. yashdudu

The first objective is to silence the First Identical letter in order to get to the process of merging them together.  That’s the only case we will be able to merge the two identical letters.

Here we can do it the easy way, by Moving it and not Removing it.

ya-mumu

Now we are able to merge the two identical meems together, and we give it a shaddah and the harakah of the second identical letter, which is the dhammah.

ya-ummu

Here we write يَؤُمُّ instead of يَأُمُّ , because of a Principle of Writing.

  • He leads
  • Don’t worry about the writing, it doesn’t have to do with Sarf directly. Even though it is studied at the end in some books of Sarf. Principles of Writing is something studied on its own, we might get later in shaa Allaah.
  • it still is a Hamzah only differently written.
  • For now we can write it however it comes with us, as we didn’t get the principles of Writing yet.

We are able to Move the Dhammah of the First identical Meem to the Hamzah (the letter before it), because it is vacant from any Harakah.

  • The moving is always to the vacant letter before.
  • What is easier يَأمُمُ or  يَؤُمُّ يَؤُمُّ

We do the same to the rest:

yasubbu

  • He curses

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّـهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ

رَبِّهِم مَّرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And insult not those whom they (disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Thus We have made fair-seeming to each people its own doings; then to their Lord is their return and He shall then inform them of all that they used to do. [6:108]

ya'uddu

  • He counts/considers

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 وَإِن تَعُدُّوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّـهِ لَا تُحْصُوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

And if you would count the graces of Allah, never could you be able to count them. Truly! Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. [16:18]

 فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا

So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number (of the days of the life of this world and delay their term so that they may increase in evil and sins). [19:84]

 

yamuddu

  • He/it stretches/ elongates

yarujju

  • He/it shakes

yahuddu

  • He prevents/ stops/ restricts

yakubbu

  • He/it pours heavily / drops

yadussu

  • He hides

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

يَتَوَارَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ مِن سُوءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonour or bury her in the earth? Certainly, evil is their decision. [16:59]

yashuddu

  • He pulls

Side Note:

The deal we have between us students and our Noble Ustaadh حفظه الله is that we should not ask about any Arabic term until we are given it. This to make it easy for us, and that we shouldn’t ask for things which will be too much for us to handle.

Learning and teaching this language needs to be done properly, especially with what is circulated, that Arabic is a difficult language, which is false. It is the easiest language, but at the same time it needs delicacy.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

sarf 1 -class 10-

Tagged:

2 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 10

  1. ummwaahid January 29, 2015 at 2:33 pm Reply

    As Salaamu Alaikum war Rahmatullaahi wal Barakhatuhu.

    I was trying to download class 10 but her isn’t a link for it.

  2. sarf4sisters January 29, 2015 at 7:17 pm Reply

    Walaykumus salaam warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuhu Sister –

    If you mean a link to PDF notes, we have just added it walhamdulillaah so kindly check again.

    Baarakallaahu feekum

    Umm Omar

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