بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
All the praise is to Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask His forgiveness. May the peace and blessings and exalted mention of Allaah be upon His slave and Messenger Muhammad (Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), his house of kin, his companions and all those who follow him exactly until the Day of Judgement.
Inshaa’Allaah, today we start by studying the text of poetry by Ibn Abee Dawood (rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa):
تمسّك بحبل لله والتّبع الهدى *** ولا تك بدعيّا لعلّك تفلح
ودن بكتاب لله والّسنن الّتي *** اتت عن رسول الله تنجوا وتربح
Tamassak bihablillaahi, wat-tabi`ilhudaa *** Walaa taku bid`iyyan la’allaka tuflihu.
Wadin bikitaabillahi was-sunanallatee *** Atat `an rasoolillaahi tanjuu watarbahu.
We mentioned before that it was the habit of the People of Knowledge (those on the right path) to start their books on Creed by calling to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) in the introduction of their books.
Why did they do so? Because they wanted to specify the sources of evidence which is the base of their beliefs in which there will not be any doubt left.
So the scholars start their books by specifying the sources of evidence which you should be depending on, in following whatever they mention in the book. So if a Muslim knows the sources he is following, then he would not turn aside to anything else, unless he follows his desires.
The scholars got this habit from the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) who used to start his speeches with it. As narrated in Muslim; Hadith no: 867, that whenever he (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) gave a khutbah he used to start with:
أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَخَيْرُ الْهُدَى هُدَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَشَرُّ الأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا وَكُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ
“As for what follows; the best of speech is The book of Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aalaa), and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam),…”
As for Qur’aan, being the Best of Speech, Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aalaa) says in Qur’aan, Soorah An-Nisaa’:
يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَعَصَوُا الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّىٰ بِهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ اللَّـهَ حَدِيثًا
On that day those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger (Muhammad – Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) will wish that they were buried in the earth, but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allaah. (4/42)
And Allaah also says:
اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ حَدِيثًا
Allaah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement than Allaah? (4/87)
And in the same soorah:
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا وَعْدَ اللَّـهِ حَقًّا وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ قِيلًا
But those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah – Islaamic Monotheism) and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to the Gardens under which rivers flow (i.e. in Paradise) to dwell therein forever. Allaah’s Promise is the Truth, and whose words can be truer than those of Allaah? (Of course, none). (4/122)
- The word Tamassak means to ‘hold on tightly’, as has come in Qur’aan, Soorah Al`Imraan:
وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allaah (i.e. this Qur’aan), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allaah’s Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islaamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allaah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided. (3/103)
- The word Habli-llaah, means the ‘Rope of Allaah’ , which is the Qur’aan and in another interpretation it means the Sunnah. There is no contradiction because of the following principle:
***If there is more than one interpretation for one verse, which aren’t contradicting, all of them are proven and all of them are true.***
This is among the miracles of the Qur’aan.That is also why they say the Qur’aan is the carrier of many possible interpretations. Arabic language is the most vast of all languages in its meanings. Hence one word can have many meanings. For example: the word nabiyy ( نَبِيّ ), can have up to four meanings of which none contradict with each other. And Allaah said in Soorah Al A’raaf:
وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَابِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ
And as to those who hold fast to the Book (i.e. act on its teachings) and perform As-Salaat (Iqamat-as-Salaat), certainly, We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds. (7/170)
And also in Soorah Az-Zukhruf, verse 43 shows that rope of Allaah implies both Qur’aan and Sunnah.
فَاسْتَمْسِكْ بِالَّذِي أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
So hold you (O Muhammad Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) fast to that which is inspired in you. Verily, you are on a Straight Path. (43/43)
In this verse what is ‘inspired’ implies both Qur’aan and Sunnah. The Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) used the same word ‘Tamassak’ for holding onto his sunnah. In the hadeeth, narrated by Aboo Dawood #4607 and at-Tirmidhiyy:
فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ بَعْدِي فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ الرَّاشِدِينَ تَمَسَّكُوا بِهَا وَعَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ
Whoever lives after me will see after me many differences, so hold on to my sunnah and the way of the rightly guided khalifs after me, tamassakuu bihaa.. hold on fast to it. And bite on it with your molars.
ADDITIONAL BENEFIT: This hadeeth also implies that there is no difference between the way of the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and the way of his companions; because the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) is referring to both ways as one way (using bihaa, and not bihimaa.. which denotes two in Arabic). The wording of the hadeeth: وَعَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ “..And bite on it with your molars.” implying that he who holds on to the Sunnah will be tested. Because you biting on to something, means someone is trying to pull you away from it. Because you will be contradicting with people’s desires when trying to follow the Sunnah. And in Hadeeth Muslim #10:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَرْضَى لَكُمْ ثَلاَثًا وَيَكْرَهُ لَكُمْ ثَلاَثًا فَيَرْضَى لَكُمْ: أَنْ تَعْبُدُوهُ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَأَنْ تَعْتَص وَأَنْ تَعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُو ….
Allaah is pleased with three things for you: That you worship Him and do not set up partners with him in worship. That you hold on fast to the rope of Allaah and do not differ/ divide….
This is a very important point:
It’s a proof against the saying: Call to `aqeedah separates the people (Ummah). Because as per the hadeeth, the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) is that the result of not holding on to the rope of Allaah, is differing/dividing. Hence their (deviant’s) saying contradicts what the Book of Allaah and the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) said: You will differ if you don’t hold onto the Sunnah. This notion is only from their desires, and following the desires will only ruin the deeds, as Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa) said in Surah Al-Kahf, verses 103-104:
قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًا * الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا
Say (O Muhammad Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam). “Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of (their) deeds? “Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds! (18/103-104)
They divided after the clear proofs from the Book of Allaah came to them; as in the verse: Soorah Al `Imraan; verse 105:
وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُوا وَاخْتَلَفُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَات وَأُولَـٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
And be not as those who divided and differed among themselves after the clear proofs had come to them. It is they for whom there is an awful torment. (3/105)
This is because they didn’t follow the clear proofs. And in same soorah at the end, verse number 187, they divided when they threw away some of what Allaah send down to them… in the sense they didn’t follow it.
وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّـهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ
(And remember) when Allaah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the news of the coming of Prophet Muhammad SAW and the religious knowledge) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought. (3/187)
And Allaah clarifies further in Soorah Anfaal, verse 63, that this Qur’aan is a guide to al-Muttaqoon. Others do not get this guidance, because of their lack of sincerity in following the guidance and they have a screen on their hearts which prevent from understanding the Qur’aan because of the many sins they have earned
وَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ لَوْ أَنفَقْتَ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا مَّا أَلَّفْتَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ أَلَّفَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِنَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
And He has united their (i.e. believers’) hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allaah has united them. Certainly He is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (8/63)
These verses imply that what brought the Muslims together is not wealth or money, rather faith/ Eemaan. Their cause was one. But now in the West, you think them together /united, they are rather corrupted and their hearts are divided, because they are upon a shaken belief and they lose every battle against the Muslims. As Allaah said in Soorah Al-Hashr, verse 14:
لَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِي قُرًى مُّحَصَّنَةٍ أَوْ مِن وَرَاءِ جُدُرٍ بَأْسُهُم بَيْنَهُمْ شَدِيدٌ تَحْسَبُهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ شَتَّىٰ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَعْقِلُونَ
They fight not against you even together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Their enmity among themselves is very great. You would think they were united, but their hearts are divided, that is because they are a people who understand not. (59/14)
- The words al-hudaa and al-hadiyy mean the same – the way. The scholars said, interpreting from Soorah Mu’minoon, verse 53, i.e., everyone innovated for himself a way to follow.
فَتَقَطَّعُوا أَمْرَهُم بَيْنَهُمْ زُبُرًا كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ
But they (men) have broken their religion among them into sects, each group rejoicing in its belief. (23/53)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (hafithahullaah) said: The spending of wealth will not bring the hearts together, rather causes enmity and hatred. And as in Soorah Al-Bayyinah, verse 4:
وَمَا تَفَرَّقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ
And the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) differed not until after there came to them clear evidence. (i.e. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaaahu`alayhi wasallam) and whatever was revealed to him). (98/4)
Also in Soorah Al-Baqarah, verse 213:
كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّـهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللَّـهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
Mankind were one community and Allaah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allaah by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allaah guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. (2/213)
The people were “one”, meaning, “united.” Ibn`Abbaas – turjumaanul-Qur’aan – says about the interpretation of this verse, ‘There was between Aadam and Nuuh ten generations, all of them were upon clear and true religion. Then Shaytaan caused them to be astray from the Straight Path by deluding them to make statues of pious people and worship them. Thus when they went astray, Allaah sent Nuuh to them to call them to clear religion.’
Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says in Soorah Al-Ankabut, verse 14, Nuuh called his people to Tawheed, the Straight Path – for 950 years and only a few individuals believed in him.
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلَّا خَمْسِينَ عَامًا فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ
And indeed We sent Nuuh (Noah) to his people, and he stayed among them a thousand years less fifty years [inviting them to believe in the Oneness of Allaah (Monotheism), and discard the false gods and other deities], and the Deluge overtook them while they were Zaalimoon (wrong-doers, polytheists, disbelievers, etc.). (29/14)
So, it is only `Aqeedah/Creed which brings a people together.
Why was it said this way? Meaning, in this poem, why was the Qur’aan called the “rope of Allaah?” This is a resembling. The book of Allaah was resembled to a rope because whoever holds on to the rope, will be free from falling, into destruction. Just as the rope keeps you from falling, the Book of Allaah keeps you from falling into destruction.
“Hold on tightly to the Book of Allaah, and follow the Hudaa” … as in Soorah Al An’aam, verse 106.
اتَّبِعْ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Follow what has been inspired to you (O Muhammad-Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) from your Lord, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) and turn aside from Al-Mushrikoon. (6/106)
The Book of Allaah is ‘the rope of Allaah’ and also ‘al-hudaa…the guidance’. But here, the best of what came from Allaah is that which the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) came with. The best way, the best hudaa – is that of the Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) as in previous hadeeth. Allaah sent all of His messengers with hudaa, but the best of all hudaa is that of our Prophet (Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam).
هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ
It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islaam), to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) hate (it). (9/33)
And ‘Al-Hudaa” (the guidance) is of two types:
- That which is in the sense of leading and instructing, and showing the way. هداية الدّللا والإرشاد Hidaayatu addalaala wal irshaad Example: pointing the way / showing the door.
- And that which is in the sense of inspiring and turning the hearts towards accepting the truth and acting upon it. Implying creating guidance in the heart. This only Allaah can do.هداية التّوفيق والإهام Hidaayatu at tawfeeqi wal ilhaam.
These two types are obtained from the Qur’aan, as will be explained in next class, inshaa’Allaah.
~ END of CLASS ~
Notes transcribed by Umm Adnaan