ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 11

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                                       ~~~~~                     Link to PDF notes

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Chapter Two >>>

fa'ala yaf'ilu

The Harakah on the ‘Ayn in the Maadh differs from the Harakah on the ‘Ayn in the Mudaari’. In the Maadh it has a Fathah and in the Mudaari’ it has a Kasrah.

  • The First Chapter is فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ , with a Fathah on the Maadh and a Dhammah on the Mudaari’

In the previous classes it was said that Chapter one is considered a pattern followed with three types of verbs, which are:

1- Whenever the ‘Ayn is a Waaw

2- Whenever the Laam is a Waaw

3- Whenever the ‘Ayn and the Laam are identical, provided that the verb is Transitive.

As for Chapter Two it is taken as a Principle in Four types of Verbs:

1-Whenever the ‘ ع’  is a ‘ ي

2-Whenever the ‘ ل’ is a ‘ ي

3- Whenever the ‘ ع’ and ‘ ل’ are identical, provided the verb is Intransitive.

4-Whenever the ‘ ف’ is a ‘ و

*Note: A condition will be added to type number 2 and 4 -this will come later in shaa Allaah-

  • In Chapter one it is said that: Whenever the ‘Ayn is a Waaw and whenever the Laam is a Waaw, but in Chapter two instead of a Waaw it is going to be a Yaa
  • And in Chapter one it is said that: Whenever the ‘Ayn and Laam are identical, provided the verb is Transitive, but in Chapter two instead of Transitive it is Intransitive.
  • You can see how the Chapters are put and organized in a way were it is easy to relate to. Especially Chapter One and Two, they are almost the same.

 

The First type of Verbs which is a Principle to Chapter Two:

1-Whenever the ‘ ع’ is a ‘ ي

Example:

The Root Letters:

ب- ي- ن

ب- ي- ت

ج- ي- ء

ح- ي- د

خ- ي- ب

د- ي- ن

ز- ي- د

س- ي- ل

ص- ي- د

The objective here is to match it to Chapter Two  فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ

Building the Root letters to the مَاض , which is on the scale of فَعَلَ >>>

ب- ي- ن

bayana

ب- ي- ت

bayata

ج- ي- ء

jaya-a

ح- ي- د

hayada

خ- ي- ب

khayaba

د- ي- ن

dayana

ز- ي- د

zayada

س- ي- ل

sayala

ص- ي- د

sayada

There is a Principle that we took, which we can apply on these Verbs as well, which is:

General Principle:  “ If the ‘ و’ or the  ‘ ي’ had a Harakah (i.e. Fathah, Kasrah, or Dhammah) and the letter before had a Fathah, we turn the ‘ و’ or the ‘  ي’ into an ‘ ا’ ”

  • Just as we did with قَوَلَ , we ended up saying قَالَ , because the waaw had a harakah and the letter before had a Fathah, so we were able to turn the Waaw into an Alif.

Here we do the same by turning the Yaa into an Alif, because that which applies to the Waaw applies to the Yaa as well, in this particular Principle.

baana

  • He/it appeared/ showed
  • It is intransitive

baata

  • He spent the night

jaa-a

  • He came/ approached
  • Here the Hamzah is written differently, and we shouldn’t worry about it now. Our Noble Ustaadh حفظه الله said before that the hamzah is written in different ways. It is more important to know how to say it.

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّـهِ وَالْفَتْحُ

When comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah), [110:1]

haada

  • He turned aside

khaaba

  • He was unsuccessful
  • It is the opposite of being successful

daana

  • He recompensed/ worshipped/ surrendered to someone with obedience
  • دَانَ – يَدِينُ – دِينًا

zaada

  • It increased

saala

  • It ran (used for liquids)

saada

  • He hunted (down)

Building the Root letters to the مضارع , which is on the scale of يَفعِلُ >>>

The General Steps of the Mudaari’, when it is on the scale of يَفعِلُ :

1st : We bring the ‘ ي’ in the beginning of the Verb (copy paste it as it is), and give it a Fathah.

2nd : We bring the First Original letter, which is the ‘ ف’, and silence it.

3rd : We bring the Second Original letter, which is the ‘ ع’, and give it a Kasrah (the harakah can differ)

4th : We bring the Third Original letter, which is the ‘ ل’, and give it a Dhammah

ب- ي- ن

yabyinu

ب- ي- ت

yabyitu

ج- ي- ء

yajyi-u

ح- ي- د

yahyidu

خ- ي- ب

yakhyibu

د- ي- ن

yadyinu

ز- ي- د

yazyidu

س- ي- ل

yasyilu

ص- ي- د

yasyidu

We apply the same Principles as we did with يَقوُلُ

~~

Reminder:

Principle: “The Dhammah is heavy on the ‘ و’, so it is moved to the letter before if it is vacant (from any harakah).”

“If you can’t Move Remove.”

And this goes back to the Mother Principle which says: “Arabs seek lightness in Speech”

We ended up Moving the Dhammah on the Waaw to the vacant letter before it, because of the heaviness caused by the Dhammah on the Waaw.

~~

Here the same applies to these Verbs, because the Kasrah on the ‘ ي’ is also heavy -just as the Dhammah is heavy on the Waaw-.

Whatever we did with the Waaw we are going to do with the Yaa with no difference, by Moving the Kasrah on the Yaa to the vacant letter before it.

yabeenu

  • He/it appears/ shows

yabeetu

  • He spends the night

yajee-u

  • He comes/ approach

yaheedu

  • He turns aside

yakheebu

  • He is unsuccessful

yadeenu

  • He recompense/ worships/ surrenders to someone with obedience

yazeedu

  • It increases

yaseelu

  • It runs (used for liquids)

yaseedu

  • He hunts (down)

The Second type of Verbs which is a Principle to Chapter Two:

2-Whenever the ‘ ل’ is a ‘ ي

  • Here there is a condition to it (which we will get in the next class In shaa Allaah)

Example:

The Root Letters:

أ-و-ي

ب- ن- ي

ث- ن- ي

ح- و- ي

ح- م- ي

ق- ض- ي

ر- م- ي

ز- ن- ي

ش- ف- ي

This case is just the same as the Second Type of the First Chapter. The only difference is instead of dealing with a Waaw we are dealing with a Yaa.

  • Don’t make it complicated it is easy in shaa Allaah.

The objective here is to match it to Chapter Two  فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ

Building the Root letters to the مَاض , which is on the scale of فَعَلَ >>>

أ-و-ي

awaya

ب- ن- ي

banaya

ث- ن- ي

thanaya

ح- و- ي

hawaya

ح- م- ي

hamaya

ق- ض- ي

qadhaya

ر- م- ي

ramaya

ز- ن- ي

zanaya

ش- ف- ي

shafaya

Here we apply the same Principle as in Chapter One for the Second type of Verbs, which is:

General Principle:  “ If the ‘ و’ or the  ‘ ي’ had a Harakah (i.e. Fathah, Kasrah, or Dhammah) and the letter before had a Fathah, we turn the ‘  و’ or the ‘  ي’ into an ‘ ا’ ”

Because ‘ ي’ has a Harakah, which is a Fathah and the letter before it has a Fathah,  we are able to apply the Principle and turn the ‘ ي’ into an Alif.

  • Here it is a sitting Alif (a yaa without dots) and not a standing one, this way it is taking the form of a ‘ ي’ to indicate and hint that it was turned from a Yaa, and this is at the end when there is no letter following it.
  • The ‘Standing Alif’ at the end tells us that it is originally a Waaw.
  • For now we can call it a ‘Sitting Alif’.

awaa

  • He sought shelter

banaa

  • He build

thanaa

  • He bent

hawaa

  • It contained

hamaa

  • He protected

qadhaa

  • He judged/ decreed

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل

لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا

And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. [17:23]

ramaa

  • He threw/ shot

zanaa

  • He practiced illegal sexual intercourse

shafaa

  • He cured

Extra Note:

The way to know if the Alif was originally a Waaw or a Yaa is by knowing the Masdar and the Mudaari’. For example: دَانَ , the Masdar of it is دِين (and we see that it has a Yaa, so the Alif is originally a Yaa), Also قَالَ , the Masdar of it is قَول  and the Mudaari’ is يَقُول  (It has a Waaw in the Masdar and in the Mudaari’, so the Alif is originally a Waaw )

Homework >>>

Try to do the Mudaari’ of the following Verbs with the Principles given.

Homework class 11

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

sarf_11.1

class 11 board 2

Tagged:

9 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 11

  1. Abdul Rahman February 3, 2015 at 7:46 pm Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    I don’t know how relevant this question is. Please forgive me for asking these many questions.
    It says in the notes,
    “The way to know if the Alif was originally a Waaw or a Yaa is by knowing the Masdar and the Mudaari’. ”
    Isn’t the masdar alone sufficient? Or did you mean masdar OR mudaari’?
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

    • sarf4sisters February 4, 2015 at 4:03 am Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      No problem,

      If it was said ‘or’, that means that also by only knowing its Mudaari’ you will know what it originally was, because you say Masdar or Mudaari’ (meaning that by only the Masdar or only the Mudaari’ you will know what the Alif originally was.)

      But in some cases knowing the Mudaari’ only won’t suffice, because you still won’t be able to tell what the Alif originally was unless you go to its Masdar. Like with نَامَ its mudaari’ is يَنَامُ and its Masdar is نَومًا .

      This means that by me only knowing its Mudaari’ I still wasn’t able to tell what the Alif originally was till I went to its Masdar.

      That is why it is said ‘and’ and not ‘or’

      I hope this makes it clear in shaa Allaah,

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      – Umm Sufyaan

  2. Abdul Rahman February 4, 2015 at 10:35 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    Baarakallaahu feek!
    Okay so the Mudaari’ alone wont suffice. But how about the masdar alone? That is enough no?

    • sarf4sisters February 5, 2015 at 10:52 am Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته,

      Wa feek,

      The question has been asked to our Noble Ustaadh Jazaahu Allaahu khayraa and his reply was: ‘Yes, if not All in most cases.’

      وبالله التوفيق,

      Umm Sufyaan

  3. Abdul Rahman February 7, 2015 at 7:15 am Reply

    Jazaakallaahu khayran
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

  4. Abdul Rahman February 16, 2015 at 7:33 pm Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

    In the examples أ-و-ي and ح- و- ي
    Aren’t these 2 words belonging to 2 chapters namely chapter one and chapter 2?
    In these cases, why do we only turn the “yaa” ? Why don’t we turn the “waaw’s” in both the examples as well?
    Based on what do we make these words follow chapter 2 when there is a reason for both of them to follow chapter one as well?

    • sarf4sisters February 19, 2015 at 1:04 pm Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      My apologies for the late reply..

      As for your question I am not certain, you would have to ask the teacher.

      Baaraka Allaahu feekum,

      – Umm Sufyaan

  5. Abdul Rahman February 19, 2015 at 7:41 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    Could you please address my doubt?

  6. Abdul Rahman February 19, 2015 at 9:03 pm Reply

    aameen
    no problem
    jazaakallaahu khayran
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

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