ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 12

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Going through some of the previous Homework >>>

Try to do the Mudaari’ of the following Verbs with the Principles given.

We first bring the Root Letters on the scale of يَفعِلُ



Here we are going to follow the same steps as we did with يَدعُوُ

  • If you can’t Move Remove.
  • We dropped the Dhammah on the waaw in يَدعُوُ, because we want to get away from the heaviness caused by a heavy harakah over a heavy letter ‘وُ’, after dropping the dhammah we read  يَدعُو
  • In terms of heaviness يَدعُوُ sounds like يَأوِيُ
  • Here we removed the dhammah because we were not able to move the dhammah to the letter before it (the ‘ayn of the word), because it was occupied and not vacant.

We do the same to يَأوِيُ, by removing the dhammah on the Yaa


  • The only difference is that here we have a yaa instead of a waaw
  • The Dhammah over the Yaa causes heaviness, but there are some exceptions were it is pardoned.
  • They avoid a dhammah over the Yaa especially when it comes after a kasrah.
  • Moving from a kasrah to a dhammah or from a kasrah to a waaw or from a dhammah to a kasrah or from a dhammah to a yaa is all avoided.
  • The easy way to get rid of this heaviness is by moving the dhammah to the letter before, but there has to be a condition to it, which is that the letter before it has to be vacant.
  • In this case we can’t move so we remove.

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ مَن لَّا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ

And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them? [46:5]

 قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا

صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

Say (O Muhammad SAW): “I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God i.e. Allah). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.” [18:110]

 قَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ لِي بِكُمْ قُوَّةً أَوْ آوِي إِلَىٰ رُكْنٍ شَدِيدٍ

He said: “Would that I had strength (men) to overpower you, or that I could betake myself to some powerful support (to resist you).” [11:80]

We do the same to the rest:

ب -ن -ي


  • We dropped the dhammah on the yaa just as we did with يَأوِي

ث -ن -ي


ح- و- ي


Continuation of Chapter Two >>>

fa'ala yaf'ilu

Chapter Two is taken as a Principle in Four types of Verbs:

1-Whenever the ‘ ع’  is a ‘ ي

2-Whenever the ‘ ل’ is a ‘ ي’, provided that the ‘ ع’ isn’t one of the throat letters (i.e. ع -ح- غ- خ- ء- هـ )

3- Whenever the ‘ ع’ and ‘ ل’ are identical, provided the verb is Intransitive.

4-Whenever the ‘ ف’ is a ‘ و

  • The condition of type two is mentioned by Ustaadh حفظه الله
  • Just as long the Laam is a Yaa and the ‘Ayn isn’t one of these throat letters ع -ح- غ- خ- ء- هـ, then this Verb will be built upon Chapter Two

The Verb which is Intransitive is called  لَازِم (Laazim).

It linguistically means: Something that remains in its place and doesn’t move/ it sticks.

That’s why they called the verb which remains within the doer and doesn’t cross over to a receiver لازم

  • Why intransitive and not transitive? Because when it is transitive it will belong to Chapter One -which is the third type of Chapter One-
  • It can’t be the same, otherwise there will be a contradiction.

The Third type of Verbs which is a Principle to Chapter Two:

  • Whenever the ‘ع’ and ‘ل’ are identical, provided that the verb is Intransitive.


The Root Letters

ت- ب- ب

غ- ب- ب

ص-ح- ح

ف- ر- ر

ض- ل- ل

ز- ل- ل

ر- ق- ق

ح- ل- ل

ذ- ل – ل

Building the Root letters to the مَاض , which is on the scale of فَعَلَ >>>

The steps that we follow here are exactly like the steps we followed in the third type of Chapter One.

  • The only difference is in the Mudaari’, instead of its ‘Ayn having a dhammah it has a kasrah

ت- ب- ب


غ- ب- ب


ص-ح- ح


ف- ر- ر


ض- ل- ل


ز- ل- ل


ر- ق- ق


ح- ل- ل


ذ- ل – ل


Our first objective is the heaviness caused by the two identical letters in a row both holding a harakah.

The next objective is to actualize the condition of merging, which is having the first identical letter silent.

  • This in order to be able to merge the two identical letters together, otherwise they can’t be merged.

The final objective is to merge the two identical letters.

We are going back to the Principle of: “If you can’t Move Remove.”

We want to merge the two identical letters together.

How are we going to do that? By actualizing the condition of merging.

What is the condition of merging? That the first identical letter should be silent in order to be able to merge.

We can silence the first identical letters, by one of two ways:  Moving or Removing.

Can we move the harakah of the first identical letter to the letter before it تَبَبَ ? No we can’t, because there is already a harakah before the first identical letter (it is occupied and not vacant)

So we must Remove, and when we Remove we are able to merge the two identical letters together, and we give it a shaddah to indicate the merging and give it the same harakah of the second identical letter.

ت- ب- ب


  • He/ it perished

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ

Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet), and perish he! [111:1]

We do the same with the rest:

غ- ب- ب


  • He alternated

ص-ح- ح


  • It became authenticated/ valid/ sound/ healthy/ up right / righteous

ف- ر- ر


  • He flew away

ض- ل- ل


  • He went astray

As said:

 أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُوا رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ


Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord?) And he who changes Faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way. [2:108]

ز- ل- ل


  • He erred

ر- ق- ق


  • He/it became thin/delicate

ح- ل- ل


  • It became lawful/ landed/ befell

As الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَلَا تَطْغَوْا فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِي ۖ وَمَن يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِي فَقَدْ هَوَىٰ

(Saying) eat of the Taiyibat (good lawful things) wherewith We have provided you, and commit no oppression therein, lest My Anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My Anger descends, he is indeed perished.[20:81]

ذ- ل- ل


  • He humiliated oneself

Building the Root letters to the مضارع , which is on the scale of يَفعِلُ >>>

ت- ب- ب


غ- ب- ب


ص-ح- ح


ف- ر- ر


ض- ل- ل


ز- ل- ل


ر- ق- ق


ح- ل- ل


ذ- ل- ل


Here we notice heaviness in the two identical letters in a row both having a harakah.

The first objective is to get the first identical letter silent, to reach to the final objective, which is merging the two identical letters.

We can do this the easy way by making a treaty of peace.

How? By moving the Kasrah on the ‘Ayn (the first identical letter) over to the Faa (the letter before).

  • “If you can’t Move Remove.” We are able to move the kasrah on the first identical letter to the letter before, because it is vacant from any harakah.

yati bu

After moving the harakah on the first identical letter over to the letter before it, we are able to merge the two identical letters. We give it a shaddah and maintain the harakah of the second identical letter to indicate the merging.

  • We have to understand that the concept is to get rid of saying the same identical letters in a row with both holding a harakah.


We do the same with the rest:

غ- ب- ب


ص-ح- ح


ف- ر- ر


ض- ل- ل


ز- ل- ل


ر- ق- ق


ح- ل- ل


ذ- ل- ل


  • Because of this heaviness the verb was abbreviated.
  • These verbs are still on the scale of يَفعِلُ , but because of some principles which necessitate a slight change in its form. Not for the sake of breaking the form but for making it easier for the pronunciation.


خَيرٌ is orignally  أَخيَرُ, which is on the scale of  أَفعَلُ

Because Arabs tend to use some words excessively, they tend to make it lighter on the tongue.

They dropped the hamzah خْيَر

Starting with a silent letter is avoided according to the Laws of Arabic Language.

So they moved over the harakah of the Yaa (fathah) to the Kha (which is silent)   خَير

Now that it is said ‘khayr’, does this mean that it is no longer on the scale of أَفعَل ? No, it is أَفعَل , but due to the wish of making it lighter on the tongue it was abbreviated.

As Ibnu Maalik said:

وَرُبَّمَا أَغنَاهُمُ خَيرٌ وَشَر * عَن قَولِهِم أَخيَرُ مِنهُ وَأَشَر

  • It sufficed them saying خير and شر from them saying أخير and أشر
  • It is a Noun
  • Its original identity is أَفعَل
  • الله is originally الإله , but because of the excessive usage it was abbreviated to الله

Extra benefit:

For the sake of knowledge we humiliate ourselves and take from whomever it may be. Like Moosa  عليه السلام  and he is كليم الله. Allaah spoke to him directly without any intermediary and he humbled  himself for the sake of knowledge to Al khadir. Not only that he went on a journey to get that knowledge and he was also apologizing to him. This is a lesson to all of us.

Islam is not only ‘Aqeedah, but also Akhlaaq, Aadaab, we have to take Islam in whole.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:








5 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 12

  1. ummwaahid February 5, 2015 at 8:56 am Reply

    As Salaamu Alaikum war Rahmatullaahi wal Barakhatuhu

    Could you please post the PDF for download.Jazaakum Allaahu khairan

  2. Abdul Rahman February 7, 2015 at 7:20 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته umm waahid. I had asked a similar question previously. This is the reply i received.
    “Yes, the reason is because we haven’t gotten to that yet. Kindly understand that the blog notes and PDF’s may not always be available, baarakallaahu feekum and thank you for your patience.”

  3. ummwaahid February 8, 2015 at 8:26 am Reply

    As Salaamu Alaikum war Rahmatullaahi wal Barakhatuhu.
    Can we please have the PDF link so we can download classes 12, 13, 14?

    • sarf4sisters February 8, 2015 at 9:14 am Reply

      Walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh. Baarakallaahu feeki for your pateince, they have not been prepared yet but we will notify you when they are ready Inshaa’Allaah.

  4. Hassaan February 12, 2015 at 12:42 am Reply

    Assalam-o-Alaikum warehmatullah
    Kindly provide the PDF for this class
    JazakAllah Khair!

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