ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 13

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                                     ~~~~~                          Link to PDF notes

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Continuation of Chapter Two >>>

fa'ala yaf'ilu

Very important point: When it is said Chapter two is a principle in four types of verbs, this doesn’t mean that only those four types of verbs follow that pattern. These are beneficial pointers/rules and principles to know when you decide a verb to follow a certain Chapter.

Like the number of verbs given in the beginning of our classes, which aren’t one of those types, like:  عَبَدَ, يَعبُدُ

Is عَبَدَ a verb which has its ‘Ayn as a Waaw? No

Is it a verb which has its Laam as a Waaw? No

Is it a verb were the ‘Ayn and Laam are identical? No

But it still follows Chapter One.

  • Keep in mind that Chapter One is a Principle in three types of Verbs and Chapter Two is a Principle in four types of Verbs.
  • The third type of Chapter two is: Whenever the ‘Ayn and Laam are identical, provided that the verb is Intransitive.
  • The Transitive is in Chapter one, third type.
  • It is important to Revise, ustaadh said: “ A very good way to revise, as our شيوخ advised especially our شيخ محمد علي آدم الأثيوبي حفظه الله تعالى, he said: if you want to revise a lesson, you go back home and read it five time (just read through), and then on the following day read that same lesson which you read five times, four times and then the day after three times and so on. ” Gradually go down until you end up with reading it only once. If you do that with every lesson then in shaa Allaah nothing will pass you by.  If you are not able to start with reading it five times you start with three times.

Chapter two is a Principle in four types of Verbs, so far we took three types.

4 – Whenever the ‘ ف’ is a ‘ و’, provided that the ‘ ل’ isn’t one of the throat letters.

  • What is the faa here? The first original letter –don’t just say first, because the first might be extra-

Example:

The Root Letters:

و- ج- ب

و- ل- ج

و- ج- د

و- ع- د

و- ل- د

و- ص- ف

و- ص- ل

و- ز- ن

و- ق-ي

  • Why is there always a Waaw in the beginning of these root letters? Because this is the fourth type of verbs, which always has the faa as a Waaw.
  • و -ق- ي, is an interesting one, because we will be working with two principles, a principle which we have taken before and a new one.

Building the Root letters to the مَاض , which is on the scale of فَعَلَ >>>

و- ج- ب

wajaba

  • وَجَبَ : It became obligatory
  • Its originally means: It became established/ it fell
  • The reason why the meaning ‘it became obligatory’, is mentioned, because this is what comes cross our mind whenever we hear this word, referring it to the word وَاجِب

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:

وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُم مِّن شَعَائِرِ اللَّـهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ ۖ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ

جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ سَخَّرْنَاهَا لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

And the Budn (cows, oxen, or camels driven to be offered as sacrifices by the pilgrims at the sanctuary of Makkah.) We have made for you as among the Symbols of Allah, therein you have much good. So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice). Then, when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat thereof, and feed the beggar who does not ask (men), and the beggar who asks (men). Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful. [22:36]

و- ل- ج

walaja

  • He/ it entered

و- ج- د

wajada

  • He found

As الله سبحانه وتعالى  said:


وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاءً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللَّـهَ عِندَهُ

فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing, but he finds Allah with him, Who will pay him his due (Hell). And Allah is Swift in taking account. [24:39]


فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ وَأَنبَتَهَا نَبَاتًا حَسَنًا وَكَفَّلَهَا زَكَرِيَّا ۖ كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ

عِندَهَا رِزْقًا ۖ قَالَ يَا مَرْيَمُ أَنَّىٰ لَكِ هَـٰذَا ۖ قَالَتْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

So her Lord (Allah) accepted her with goodly acceptance. He made her grow in a good manner and put her under the care of Zakariya (Zachariya). Every time he entered Al-Mihrab to (visit) her , he found her supplied with sustenance. He said: “O Maryam (Mary)! From where have you got this?” She said, “This is from Allah.” Verily, Allah provides sustenance to whom He wills, without limit.” [3:37]

و- ع- د

wa'ada

  • He promised

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن

قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي

شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Allah has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion, that which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). [24:55]

  • Allaah سبحانه وتعالى doesn’t break His promise, if that which Allaah promised did not happen the problem is in us and not in Allaah. That means that we haven’t done what is a condition to have that promise met.
  • Here He promised those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He would give them succession in the land as he has given those before them, and He would grand them authority to practice their religion, and that He would exchange their fair with safety and security, provided that they do one thing. If they don’t do that thing they do not get what Allaah promised. Because they didn’t do what Allaah asked them to do to have that which He promised, which is worshiping Allaah Alone/singling out Allaah in worship (At Tawheed)

و- ل- د

walada

  • He begot
  • The begetting when referred to the male is in the sense of him being one of the means and reasons.
  • People are under the impression that وَلَدٌ (Noun), is a name given for the boy and that is not correct. ولد is every Child, whether it be boy/male or girl/female.
  • The Arabs in their slang they restrict the word ‘ ولد ’ to a boy, but in reality ‘ ولد ’ is ‘a begotten child’

As Allaah said:

 وَوَالِدٍ وَمَا وَلَدَ

And by the begetter (i.e. Adam ) and that which he begot (i.e. his progeny); [90:3]

 وَلَدَ اللَّـهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ

“Allah has begotten off spring or children (i.e. angels are the daughters of Allah)?” And, verily, they are liars! [37:152]

و- ص- ف

wasafa

  • He described

و- ص- ل

wasala

  • This verb is either taken as transitive or intransitive.
  • If it is taken as a transitive verb, it will mean: He joined it
  • If it is taken as an intransitive verb, it will mean: He reached to a certain destination.

و- ز- ن

wazana

  • He weighed
  • Just as we were taught وَزَنَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ

و- ق-ي

waqaya

In وَقَيَ we are able to apply a principle, which is: “ When the ‘ و’ or the ‘ ي’ has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah, we change it into an Alif. ”

Is it going to be a sitting or a standing Alif? A sitting Alif

How come a sitting Alif? To hint out that it was originally a Yaa

So it will become

waqaa

  •  He protected/ preserved

Building the Root letters to the مضارع , which is on the scale of يَفعِلُ >>>

1st : We bring the ‘ ي’ in the beginning of the Verb (copy paste it as it is), and give it a Fathah.

2nd : We bring the First Original letter, which is the ‘ ف’, and silence it.

3rd : We bring the Second Original letter, which is the ‘ ع’, and give it a Kasrah

4th : We bring the Third Original letter, which is the ‘ ل’, and give it a Dhammah

  • Remember that instead of the ي’ in the beginning it could be a ‘ أ’ or a ‘ ن’ or a ‘ ت’ , because there are four letters for the Mudaari’ always.
  • The Yaa is used by default

و- ج- ب

yawjibu

و- ل- ج

yawliju

و- ج- د

yawjidu

و- ع- د

yaw'idu

و- ل- د
yawlidu

و- ص- ف
yawsifu

و- ص- ل

yawsilu

و- ز- ن

yawzinu

و- ق- ي

yawqiyu

Principle: Whenever a ‘ و’ falls between its two enemies (i.e. Fathah and Kasrah) it falls (i.e. drops)

  • They called it enemies in the sense of them not suiting the Waaw
  • Dropped by writing and pronunciation
  • Between two different enemies , the fathah and kasrah or kasrah and fathah and not between the fathah and the fathah or the kasrah and the kasrah

With this Principle we will drop the ‘و’ in all those verbs, because it fall between two enemies (i.e. Fathah and Kasrah)

yajibu

  • It becomes/is obligatory/ it is established/ it falls

yaliju

  • He/it enters

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:


إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا عَنْهَا لَا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَلَا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّىٰ يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ

فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُجْرِمِينَ

Verily, those who belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and treat them with arrogance, for them the gates of heaven will not be opened, and they will not enter Paradise until the camel goes through the eye of the needle (which is impossible). Thus do We recompense the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners, etc.). [7:40]

 يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا ۚ وَهُوَ الرَّحِيمُ الْغَفُورُ

He knows that which goes into the earth and that which comes forth from it, and that which descend from the heaven and that which ascends to it. And He is the Most Merciful, the OftForgiving. [34:2]

yajidu

  • He finds


وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّـهِ

وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّـهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

He who emigrates (from his home) in the Cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. [4:100]

ya'idu

  • He promises

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

وَإِذْ يَعِدُكُمُ اللَّـهُ إِحْدَى الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمْ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيْرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوْكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ أَن

يُحِقَّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَيَقْطَعَ دَابِرَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And (remember) when Allah promised you (Muslims) one of the two parties (of the enemy i.e. either the army or the caravan) that it should be yours, you wished that the one not armed (the caravan) should be yours, but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words and to cut off the roots of the disbelievers (i.e. in the battle of Badr). [8:7]

الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّـهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Shaitan (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower. [2:268]

 يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

He [Shaitan (Satan)] makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaitan’s (Satan) promises are nothing but deceptions. [4:120]

yalidu

  • He begets

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ

“He begets not, nor was He begotten;

yasifu

  • He describes
  • You can a أَصِفُ – نَصِفُ – تَصِفُ

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:


قَالُوا إِن يَسْرِقْ فَقَدْ سَرَقَ أَخٌ لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ فَأَسَرَّهَا يُوسُفُ فِي نَفْسِهِ وَلَمْ يُبْدِهَا لَهُمْ ۚ قَالَ أَنتُمْ شَرٌّ مَّكَانًا

ۖ وَاللَّـهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا تَصِفُونَ

They [(Yusuf’s (Joseph) brothers] said: “If he steals, there was a brother of his [Yusuf (Joseph)] who did steal before (him).” But these things did Yusuf (Joseph) keep in himself, revealing not the secrets to them. He said (within himself): “You are in worst case, and Allah knows best the truth of what you assert![12:77]

yasilu

  • Transitive: He joins it
  • Intransitive: He reaches to a certain destination

As Allaah سبحانه تعالى  said:

 وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنَ الْحَرْثِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ نَصِيبًا فَقَالُوا هَـٰذَا لِلَّـهِ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَهَـٰذَا لِشُرَكَائِنَا ۖ فَمَا كَانَ

لِشُرَكَائِهِمْ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى اللَّـهِ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّـهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَكَائِهِمْ ۗ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

And they assign to Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: “This is for Allah according to their pretending, and this is for our (Allah’s so-called) partners.” But the share of their (Allah’s so-called) “partners” reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their (Allah’s so-called) “partners”! Evil is the way they judge! [6:136]

yazinu

  • He/it weighs
  • أَزِنُ – تَزِنُ – نَزِنُ
  • الدُّنيَا عِندَ اللهِ لَا تَزِنُ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَة – ‘The worldly life in the estimation of Allaah does not weigh a mosquito’s wing’

yaqiyu

  • He protects/ prevents

In يَقِيُ,the dhammah over the Yaa causes heaviness, and we have a Principle that we have taken before, which is: ‘If you can’t Move Remove.’

The Dhammah is heavy on the Yaa and there is no space to move that dhammah to the letter before it because it is occupied, so if we can’t move we remove.

So it will become

yaqee

Homework >>>

Bring the following root letters to the Maadh and Mudaari’ in the following table by using the Principles given.

homework class 13

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

sarf_13.1

sarf_13.2

sarf_13.3

4 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 13

  1. Abdul Rahman February 7, 2015 at 9:31 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    Shouldn’t the meaning of yasifu be “He describes” instead of He described?

    • sarf4sisters February 8, 2015 at 5:09 pm Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Yes, it should be ‘he describes’, the correction has been made,

      Baaraka Allaahu feek,

      Umm Sufyaan

  2. Abdul Rahman February 7, 2015 at 9:31 am Reply

    Jazaakallaahu khayran

  3. Abdul Rahman February 8, 2015 at 11:31 pm Reply

    aameen

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