ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 14

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                                    ~~~~~                       Link to PDF notes

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Chapter Three >>>

ch. 3

Here the Fathah on the ‘Ayn is in both المَاضِي and المُضَارِع .

And we have taken before that the harakah on the ‘Ayn in the Maadh is supposed to be different than the harakah on the ‘Ayn in the Mudaari’.

If the harakah of the ‘Ayn in the Maadh and the Mudaari’ happened to be the same then it has to be due to an exception.

The exception here is that:

These Verbs have either their ‘ ع’ or ‘ ل’ as one of the throat letters.

  • Most of the Chapters which are principles to a number types of verbs are the First Chapter and the Second.
  • This Chapter is an oddity and taken as an exception
  • The throat letters are: ع- ح- غ- خ- ء- هـ

Example:

بَدَأ – يَبدَأُ

  • بَدَأَ : He started
  • Here the throat letter is the Laam (which is the hamzah)

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّـهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say: “Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation, and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.” [29:20]

كَلَأَ – يَكلَأُ

  • كَلَأَ : He preserved/ protected

As Allaah سبحانه تعالى said:

قُلْ مَن يَكْلَؤُكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ ۗ بَلْ هُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ رَبِّهِم مُّعْرِضُونَ

Say: “Who can guard and protect you in the night or in the day from the (punishment of the) Most Beneficent (Allah)?” Nay, but they turn away from the remembrance of their Lord. [21:42]

ذَهَبَ – يَذهَبُ

  • ذَهَبَ : He went

As Allaah سبحانه تعالى said:

 مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّـهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ

Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. [2:17]

بَعَثَ – يَبعَثُ

  • بَعَثَ : He sent

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَبَعَثَ اللَّـهُ غُرَابًا يَبْحَثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُرِيَهُ كَيْفَ يُوَارِي سَوْءَةَ أَخِيهِ ۚ قَالَ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَعَجَزْتُ أَنْ

أَكُونَ مِثْلَ هَـٰذَا الْغُرَابِ فَأُوَارِيَ سَوْءَةَ أَخِي ۖ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ النَّادِمِينَ

Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted.[5:31]

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن

كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Quran, Islamic laws and Islamic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad SAW). And verily, they had been before in mainfest error; [62:2]

سَـمَحَ – يَسمَحُ

  • سَمَحَ : He allowed

شَرَحَ – يَشرَحُ

  • شَرَحَ : He explained
  • It also has the meaning of opening, as Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ

Have We not opened your breast for you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him))?  [94:1]

ذَبَحَ – يَذبَحُ

  • ذَبَحَ : He slaughterd

مَزَحَ – يَـمزَحُ

  • مَزَحَ : He joked

مَدَحَ – يَـمدَحُ

  • مَدَحَ : He praised

verbs fa'ala yaf'alu

Chapter Four and Five >>>

ch. 4&5

As we were told before, there are six Chapters, which are:

6 combo's

Chapter One: فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ

Chapter Two: فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ

Chapter Three: فَعَلَ – يَفعَلُ

Chapter Four:   فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ

Chapter Five:   فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ

Chapter Six:   فَعُلُ – يَفعُلُ

فَعَلَ has three possible combinations, because it is the lightest one on the tongue.

فَعِلَ has two possible combinations, because it is heavier than فَعَلَ but not heavier than فَعُلَ .

فَعُلَ has one possible combination, because it is the heaviest one on the tongue.

And the Mother Principle says: “Seeking lightness in Speech”, so this ended up being the mostly used one.

فَعِلَ has one of two possibilities either it is combined with يَفعَلُ or  يَفعِلُ

If we were to choose the best of the two options, which would be the best for fa’ila to go with yaf’alu or with yaf’ilu-? فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ

Why? Because the harakah on the ‘Ayn in the Maadh is supposed to differ from the harkakah on the ‘Ayn in the Mudaari’.

فَعِلَ should go with يَفعَلُ and if it went with يَفعِلُ  it is an exception.

Chapter 4 فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ   and this is by default regarding فَعِلَ

  • By ‘default’ meaning, that if you find a verb sounding like فَعِلَ automatically build its Mudaari’ on the scale of يَفعَلُ , unless it is said that it is an exception

 

Chapter 5: فَعِلَ – يَفعِلُ  and this is only possible with 33 verbs

  • There are a lot of verbs on the scale of فَعِلَ , but only 33 verbs of those verbs which are on the scale of فَعِلَ have their Mudaari’ on the scale of يَفعِلُ.
  • The rest of the verbs on the scale of فَعِلَ, are by default combined with يَفعَلُ
  • That is why some scholars didn’t even count Chapter 5 as a chapter, they said Chapter 5 is an oddity and is only in 33 verbs.
  • Don’t worry about those 33 verbs, but about that which could be taken as a Principle, which is that فَعِلَ should come originally with يَفعَلُ

Chapter Four >>>

ch. 4

Example:

عَلِمَ – يَعلَمُ

  • عَلِمَ: He knew

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ تَقُومُ أَدْنَىٰ مِن ثُلُثَيِ اللَّيْلِ وَنِصْفَهُ وَثُلُثَهُ وَطَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ مَعَكَ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ يُقَدِّرُ

اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ ۚ عَلِمَ أَن لَّن تُحْصُوهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ۚ عَلِمَ أَن سَيَكُونُ

مِنكُم مَّرْضَىٰ ۙ وَآخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَبْتَغُونَ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّـهِ ۙ وَآخَرُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ

اللَّـهِ ۖ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ ۚ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَقْرِضُوا اللَّـهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا

لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّـهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا وَأَعْظَمَ أَجْرًا ۚ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّـهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Verily, your Lord knows that you do stand (to pray at night) a little less than two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so do a party of those with you, And Allah measures the night and the day. He knows that you are unable to pray the whole night, so He has turned to you (in mercy). So, recite you of the Quran as much as may be easy for you. He knows that there will be some among you sick, others travelling through the land, seeking of Allah’s Bounty; yet others fighting in Allah’s Cause. So recite as much of the Quran as may be easy (for you), and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, and lend to Allah a goodly loan, and whatever good you send before you for yourselves, (i.e. Nawafil non-obligatory acts of worship: prayers, charity, fasting, Hajj and ‘Umrah, etc.), you will certainly find it with Allah, better and greater in reward. And seek Forgiveness of Allah. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. [73:20]

عَمِلَ – يَعمَلُ

  • عَمِلَ: He worked

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا

Except those who repent and believe (in the Oneness of Allah and His Messenger Muhammad SAW), and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught. [19:60]

 إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ

Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds, then they shall have a reward without end (Paradise). [95:6]

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ ﴿٧﴾ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ ﴿٨

So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it. [99:7-8]

سَـمِعَ – يَسمَعُ

  • سَمِعَ : He heard

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ

بَصِيرٌ

Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her (Khaulah bint Tha’labah) that disputes with you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning her husband (Aus bin As-Samit), and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer. [58:1]

 لَّقَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ فَقِيرٌ وَنَحْنُ أَغْنِيَاءُ ۘ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا قَالُوا وَقَتْلَهُمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ

حَقٍّ وَنَقُولُ ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ

Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those (Jews) who say: “Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!” We shall record what they have said and their killing of the Prophets unjustly, and We shall say: “Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).” [3:181]

 وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً ۚ صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ

And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand. [2:171]

أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ

Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel? (Yes We do) and Our Messengers (appointed angels in charge of mankind) are by them, to record. [43:80]

 قَالَ لَا تَخَافَا ۖ إِنَّنِي مَعَكُمَا أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَىٰ

He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily! I am with you both, hearing and seeing. [20:46]

شَرِبَ – يَشرَبُ

  • شَرِبَ : He drank

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ

مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ ۚ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا

لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو اللَّـهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً

كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Then when Talut (Saul) set out with the army, he said: “Verily! Allah will try you by a river. So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me, and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.” Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them. So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: “We have no power this day against Jalut (Goliath) and his hosts.” But those who knew with certainty that they were to meet their Lord, said: “How often a small group overcame a mighty host by Allah’s Leave?” And Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). [2:249]

 عَيْنًا يَشْرَبُ بِهَا عِبَادُ اللَّـهِ يُفَجِّرُونَهَا تَفْجِيرًا

A spring wherefrom the slaves of Allah will drink, causing it to gush forth abundantly.[76:6]

رَكِبَ – يَركَبُ

  • رَكِبَ : He rode

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَكِبَا فِي السَّفِينَةِ خَرَقَهَا ۖ قَالَ أَخَرَقْتَهَا لِتُغْرِقَ أَهْلَهَا لَقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا إِمْرًا

So they both proceeded, till, when they embarked the ship, he (Khidr) scuttled it. Musa (Moses) said: “Have you scuttled it in order to drown its people? Verily, you have committed a thing “Imra” (a Munkar – evil, bad, dreadful thing).” [18:71]

 لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

You shall certainly travel from stage to stage (in this life and in the Hereafter). [84:19]

لَعِبَ – يَلعَبُ

  • لَعِبَ : He played

 أَرْسِلْهُ مَعَنَا غَدًا يَرْتَعْ وَيَلْعَبْ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

“Send him with us tomorrow to enjoy himself and play, and verily, we will take care of him.” [12:12]

 وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ ۚ قُلْ أَبِاللَّـهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِئُونَ

If you ask them (about this), they declare: “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say: “Was it at Allah, and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (SAW) that you were mocking?”[9:65]

أمِنَ – يَأمَنُ

  • أمِنَ : He/it was safe/sound/secure/ entrusted

As Allaah سبحانه تعالى said:

 قَالَ هَلْ آمَنُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا كَمَا أَمِنتُكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَخِيهِ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ فَاللَّـهُ خَيْرٌ حَافِظًا ۖ وَهُوَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ

He said: “Can I entrust him to you except as I entrusted his brother [Yusuf (Joseph)] to you aforetime? But Allah is the Best to guard, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.” [12:64]

  • آمنُ is originally أَأمَنُ , it is a Mudaari’
  • أَمِنتُكُم is the Maadh

خَسِرَ – يَخسَرُ

  • خَسِرَ : He lost
  • يَخسَرُ : He loses

As Allaah سبحانه تعالى said:

 وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِّن قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُم مَّن قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن لَّمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ

لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِآيَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ ۚ فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَمْرُ اللَّـهِ قُضِيَ بِالْحَقِّ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ

And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad SAW); of some of them We have related to you their story and of some We have not related to you their story, and it was not given to any Messenger that he should bring a sign except by the Leave of Allah. So, when comes the Commandment of Allah, the matter will be decided with truth, and the followers of falsehood will then be lost. [40:78]

رَبِحَ – يَربَحُ

  • رَبِحَ : he profited/ succeeded

We don’t need to do Chapter Five, because it is limited in 33 verbs and we don’t need to know those verbs now, cause we are rarely going to hear them except probably three or four of them which we commonly hear.

 fa'ila yaf'alu verbs

Chapter Six >>>

ch. 6

This Chapter is made to express inborn characteristics and natural dispositions.

  • Something you have been born with, whether it is a physical or part of your character or something that became a second nature to you or a quality which became fixed/adapted to something.
  • You use this chapter to express such things, like generosity, greatness, height, weight, length

Example:

كَبُرَ – يَكبُرُ

  • كَبُرَ : It became/was great/big
  • يَكبُرُ : It becomes/is great/ big

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَن تَقُولُوا مَا لَا تَفْعَلُونَ

Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do. [61:3]

 أَوْ خَلْقًا مِّمَّا يَكْبُرُ فِي صُدُورِكُمْ ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ مَن يُعِيدُنَا ۖ قُلِ الَّذِي فَطَرَكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ فَسَيُنْغِضُونَ

إِلَيْكَ رُءُوسَهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونَ قَرِيبًا

“Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts (thoughts to be resurrected, even then you shall be resurrected)” Then, they will say: “Who shall bring us back (to life)?” Say: “He Who created you first!” Then, they will shake their heads at you and say: “When will that be ?” Say: “Perhaps it is near!” [17:51]

شَرُفَ – يَشرُفُ

  • شَرُفَ : He became/was honorable
  • يَشرُفُ : He becomes/is honorable

كَرُمَ – يَكرُمُ

  • كَرُمَ : He became/was generous

حَسُنَ – يَحسُنُ

  • حَسُنَ : He became/was good/ good looking

قَصُرَ – يَقصُرُ

  • قَصُرَ : He became/was short

عَظُمَ – يَعظُمُ

  • عَظُمَ: He/it became/was great

fa'ula  yaf'ulu verbs

Some verbs are transitive and some are intransitive. Those intransitive actions a lot of them are qualities.

 

Brief demonstration of the conjugations that we are going to take next class in shaa Allaah >>>

conjugation maadh mudaari'

  • This will be explained in detail in shaa Allaah
  • Our noble ustaadh will demonstrate it with the verbs given before.
  • Whichever chapter the verbs may be you can do the same to all. The only thing which change is the harakah of the ‘Ayn, because they differ according to the Chapter.
  • There are 13 forms of conjugations in the Maadh and Mudaari’.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

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3 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 14

  1. Abdul Rahman February 8, 2015 at 11:35 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    Jazaakallaahu khayran.
    Just a small thing.
    In the final example of chapter 6 namely عَظُمَ – يَعظُمَ
    A fathah is at the end of the mudhaari’ instead of the dhummah.

    • sarf4sisters February 8, 2015 at 5:08 pm Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Wa iyyaakum, the correction has been made.

      Baaraka Allaahu feek,

      Umm Sufyaan

  2. Abdul Rahman February 8, 2015 at 11:29 pm Reply

    aameen

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