ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 18

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

                              ~~~~~              Link to PDF notes

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The Mithaal   الـمِثَال

Means a resembling/example, it was given this name because it resembles the Maadh of the Saalim (i.e. past verb) in not changing.

The conjugation of it in the maadh stays as it is and doesn’t change –just as the Saalim- and in the Mudaari’ the waaw gets dropped .

  • The Mithaal resembles the Saalim

Conjugations >>>

The Ajwaf       الأَجوَفُ

This means that the ‘ayn is harfu ‘illah (i.e. it is either Alif or a Waaw or a Yaa )

The Maadh

ق- و- ل

  • We already know that from this it will be قَوَلَ and after that it will be  قَالَ

The harakah of the qaaf is a fathah and that of the laam is a fathah and the Alif doesn’t have a harakah which means that it is silent (i.e. it has a sukoon).

If we want to add a pronoun which has a harakah expressing the doer the end of the verb gets silenced.

qaaltu

  • We read Qaaltu قَاْلْتُ

Now we have two silent letters in a row. This is a morphological problem.

When we have two silent letter in a row:

General Principle

1- We drop the first silent letter

This is when the following two conditions are met:

  • The first is حرف علة
  • Before it is a harakah suiting that Harf of ‘illah

2- Or give it a harakah

The steps to check if it is safe to drop the first silent letter:

1st: Look at the first silent letter and see if it is a harfu ‘illah.

2nd: If it is, we look if the letter before that harfu ‘illah has a harakah suiting it.

3rd: If it does, we drop that harfu ‘illah (i.e. the first silent letter).

  • The Alif suits the fathah and the Waaw suits the dhammah and the Yaa suits the kasrah.

In قَالْتُ we drop the first silent letter because the two conditions of dropping it are met here.

  • The first silent letter is a harfu ‘illah and the letter before it has a harakah (i.e. a fathah) suiting that alif.

qaltu

When the ‘ayn of the Ajwaf is dropped from the Maadh, if it was originally a و  we give the ف a dhammah to indicate that dropped letter.

And if it was originally a ي we give the ف a kasrah to indicate that dropped letter.

In this case the dropped letter is originally a Waaw, which means that we give the Faa a dhammah indicating that dropped letter.

qultu

  • We gave the Qaaf a dhammah to hint out/indicate that the dropped letter is originally a Waaw.

And these steps we do to whenever a pronoun (dhameer) has a harakah expressing the doer is joined to the verb.

  • Whether that dhameer is تُ – نَا – تَ – تِ – تُمَا – تُم – تُنَّ – نَ 

In قَالَ – قَالَتْ – قَالَا- قَالَتَا – قَالُوا  here there is no reason for the alif to be dropped, because there is no pronoun which has a harakah joined to the verb.

  • قَالَا , the joined alif is the Alif of Duality
  • قَالَتَا , just as فَعَلَتَا
  • قَالُوا, the waaw is the Waaw of the Group.
  • قُلنَ , the noon is the Noon of the Group of Females.

Qulna

Here the laam was silenced because the verb was joined by a dhameer having a harakah expressing the doer (i.e. the noon).  Now there are two silent letters in a row –the first one is the Alif and the second one is the Laam-. Here we are able to drop the Alif, because it is harfu ‘illah and the letter before it has a harakah (i.e. fathah) suiting that Alif. We give the faa a dhammah to indicate that the dropped letter (i.e. the alif) was originally a waaw.

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:


فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِّنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ

عَلَيْهِنَّ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَحَاشَ لِلَّـهِ مَا هَـٰذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ

So when she heard of their accusation, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them; she gave each one of them a knife (to cut the foodstuff with), and she said [(to Yusuf (Joseph)]: “Come out before them.” Then, when they saw him, they exalted him (at his beauty) and (in their astonishment) cut their hands. They said: “How perfect is Allah (or Allah forbid)! No man is this! This is none other than a noble angel!” [12:31]

Maadh qaala

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:


مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ ۚ وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا مَّا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا

تَوَفَّيْتَنِي كُنتَ أَنتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنتَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ

“Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allah) did command me to say: ‘Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things. (This is a great admonition and warning to the Christians of the whole world). [5:117]

 فَقُلْتُ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفَّارًا

I said (to them): ‘Ask forgiveness from your Lord; Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; [71:10]

 فَقُلْنَااضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُحْيِي اللَّـهُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand. [2:73]


وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّـهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَـٰهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ ۖ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ

مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ ۚ إِن كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ ۚ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلَا أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي

نَفْسِكَ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ

And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O ‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?’ ” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner-self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All-Knower of all that is hidden and unseen. [5:116]


حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَىٰ وَادِ النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُوا مَسَاكِنَكُمْ لَا يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ سُلَيْمَانُ وَجُنُودُهُ

وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulaiman (Solomon) and his hosts crush you, while they perceive not.” [27:18]

 قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” [7:23]

 ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَلَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ ائْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ

Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: “Come both of you willingly or unwillingly.” They both said: “We come, willingly.” [41:11]

  • The heavens and the earth in Arabic are feminine.

 قَالُوا رَبَّنَا غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْنَا شِقْوَتُنَا وَكُنَّا قَوْمًا ضَالِّينَ

They will say: “Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us, and we were (an) erring people.[23:106]

ب- ي- ع

baa'a

We turn the Yaa into an Alif, because the yaa has a harakah (i.e. fathah) and the letter before it has a fathah.

Here we do the same only instead of the dhammah on the Faa it is going to be the kasrah.

bi'tu

If we want to add a pronoun which has a harakah expressing the doer the end of the verb gets silenced.

Now we have two silent letter in a row –the Alif and the ‘Ayn- We drop the Alif, because the first silent letter is a harfu ‘illah (i.e. alif) and the letter before it has a harakah (i.e. fathah) suiting it. We give the Faa a kasrah to indicate that the dropped letter is originally a Yaa.

maadh baa'a 

Advice from our noble Ustaadh:

We should read out loud the conjugations at least once a day, if we want to reach to perfection. It is better to read it 50 times a day – for example reading it 10 times after each prayer. We should practice with different types of verbs. The more we practice the more it gets perfect. Don’t let a day pass without practicing.

Our scholars said: هَذَا العِلمُ لَا يُدرَكُ بِرَاحَةِ الجَسَدِ   “This knowledge(any knowledge) is not gained with the comfort of the body.”  Especially the ‘ilm of al hadeeth. And they also say:

العِلمُ لَا يُعطِيكَ بَعضَهُ حَتَّى تُعطِيهِ كُلَّكَ “The knowledge it won’t give you some of it until you give it all of you,” and if you give it some of you it will give you nothing.

 

Homework >>>

Conjugate the Maadh with the same type of verbs given before.

~~~END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

class 18

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