ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 19

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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The Ajwaf      الأَجوَفُ

This means that the ‘ayn is harfu ‘illah (i.e. it is either Alif or a Waaw or a Yaa ).

Conjugations >>>

And know that every Alif in a three letter verb is turned from either a waaw or yaa .. Always keep that in mind –  there is no such thing as an original alif in a three letter verb.  When you do see an alif in a three letter verb, that Alif is either turned from a waaw or a yaa.

So last Sarf class we took the conjugations on al Ajwaf –  and we only took the Maadh for both cases –  the case when there is a waaw in the middle (the ‘ayn) and the case when there is a yaa is in the middle (the ’ayn).  Today we take the Mudhaari’ –  we have already taken actually but there are certain details you should know in certain conjugations.

The Mudaari’

  • Here (i.e. in the Ajwaf) the dhammah or the kasrah can be used on the ‘ayn , because every verb which has the ‘Ayn as a Waaw belongs to Chapter One, which is فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ  and every verb which has the ‘Ayn as a Yaa belongs to Chapter Two, which is  فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ
  • So here we bring both possibilities.

The conjugation of the Mudaari’ is:

conjugation mudaari' table 'u and 'i

When the ‘Ayn is a Waaw.

ق- و- ل

qawala qaala

Here it is going to be on the scale of  يَفعُلُ -with a dhammah on the ‘ayn-, because the ‘Ayn is a Waaw belonging to Chapter One.

scale aqwulu

That what will happen to أَقوُلُ has already been explained. The dhammah is heavy on the waaw and in this case “If you can’t Move Remove.” Here we are able to move it to the vacant letter before it so it will be أَقُولُ

Mudaari' yaqoolu

Al Ghaaib is going to be the same as Al Mukhaatab, only there is a yaa in the beginning instead of a taa.

  • الغَائب is “the spoken about”
  • تَقُولِينَ , the yaa here is for the “single spoken to female”
  • تَفعُلُ in the Ghaaib it means “she does”, unlike as in the Mukhaatab where it means  “you (male) do”

تَقُلنَ is originally  تَقوُلنَ  . We first move the heavy dhammah on the Waaw to the Qaaf (the vacant letter before it) تَقُولنَ . Now we have two sukoons in a row. We drop the first silent letter if it is a harfu ‘illah with a suitable harakah before it. In this case the two conditions are met here (i.e. the first silent letter is a waaw (i.e. harfu ‘illah) and the letter before it has a dhammah -a suitable harakah-) so we are able to drop the waaw (the first silent letter) تَقُلنَ

taqwulna taqulna

  • يَفعُلنَ is just like  تَفعُلنَ , we give the dhammah on the waaw to the qaaf and drop the waaw.

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:


قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّـهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ

إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Say (O Muhammad SAW): “I don’t tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor (that) I know the unseen; nor I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me by inspiration.” Say: “Are the blind and the one who sees equal? will you not then take thought?” [6:50]

  • أَقُولُ : I say


لَّقَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ فَقِيرٌ وَنَحْنُ أَغْنِيَاءُ ۘ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا قَالُوا وَقَتْلَهُمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ

وَنَقُولُ ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ

Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those (Jews) who say: “Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!” We shall record what they have said and their killing of the Prophets unjustly, and We shall say: “Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).” [3:181]

 

 يَوْمَ نَقُولُ لِجَهَنَّمَ هَلِ امْتَلَأْتِ وَتَقُولُ هَلْ مِن مَّزِيدٍ

On the Day when We will say to Hell: “Are you filled?” It will say: “Are there any more (to come)?” [50:30]

  • تَقُولُ here means “she says”, because jahannam (hellfire) is feminine.


أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نُهُوا عَنِ النَّجْوَىٰ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَيَتَنَاجَوْنَ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَمَعْصِيَتِ

الرَّسُولِ وَإِذَا جَاءُوكَ حَيَّوْكَ بِمَا لَمْ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ اللَّـهُ وَيَقُولُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ لَوْلَا يُعَذِّبُنَا اللَّـهُ بِمَا نَقُولُ ۚ

حَسْبُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ يَصْلَوْنَهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

Have you not seen those who were forbidden to hold secret counsels, and afterwards returned to that which they had been forbidden, and conspired together for sin and wrong doing and disobedience to the Messenger (Muhammad SAW ). And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not, and say within themselves: “Why should Allah punish us not for what we say?” Hell will be sufficient for them, they will burn therein, and worst indeed is that destination! [58:8]

 إِذْ تَقُولُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَلَن يَكْفِيَكُمْ أَن يُمِدَّكُمْ رَبُّكُم بِثَلَاثَةِ آلَافٍ مِّنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مُنزَلِينَ

(Remember) when you (Muhammad SAW) said to the believers, “Is it not enough for you that your Lord (Allah) should help you with three thousand angels; sent down?” [3:124]

  • نَقُولُ : We say
  • تَقُولُ : You say
  • يَقُولُونَ : They all say

 أَفَأَصْفَاكُمْ رَبُّكُم بِالْبَنِينَ وَاتَّخَذَ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنَاثًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ لَتَقُولُونَ قَوْلًا عَظِيمًا

Has then your Lord (O pagans of Makkah) preferred for you sons, and taken for Himself from among the angels daughters. Verily! You utter an awful saying, indeed. [17:40]

وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً ۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّـهُ عَهْدَهُ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ

عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

And they (Jews) say, “The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days.” Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah, so that Allah will not break His Covenant? Or is it that you say of Allah what you know not?” [2:80]

  • تَقُولُونَ : You all say

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand will say: “Take, read my Record! [69:19]

 يَقُولُ الْإِنسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ

On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee?” [75:10]

  إِنَّا أَنذَرْنَاكُمْ عَذَابًا قَرِيبًا يَوْمَ يَنظُرُ الْمَرْءُ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ وَيَقُولُ الْكَافِرُ يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ تُرَابًا

Verily, We have warned you of a near torment, the Day when man will see that (the deeds) which his hands have sent forth, and the disbeliever will say: “Woe to me! Would that I were dust!” [78:40]

 يَقُولُ أَهْلَكْتُ مَالًا لُّبَدًا

He says (boastfully): “I have wasted wealth in abundance!” [90:6]


فَأَمَّا الْإِنسَانُ إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَأَكْرَمَهُ وَنَعَّمَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَكْرَمَنِ ﴿١٥﴾ وَأَمَّا إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ

رِزْقَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَهَانَنِ ﴿١٦﴾ كَلَّا ۖ بَل لَّا تُكْرِمُونَ الْيَتِيمَ ﴿١٧

As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honour and gifts, then he says (puffed up): “My Lord has honoured me. But when He tries him, by straitening his means of life, he says: “My Lord has humiliated me!” [89:15/16]

 يَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي قَدَّمْتُ لِحَيَاتِي

He will say: “Alas! Would that I had sent forth (good deeds) for (this) my life!” [89:24]

  • يَقُولُ : He says
  • Beautiful verses it is a great deal of understanding. كَلَّا , No! it isn’t that way. Some people thing when they are given, that means that Allaah is pleased with them. And that when Allaah restricts the provision for them they think it means He hates them. No! it is not that way, you got it wrong. The pleasure is not estimated by how much you have. It also proves that having the pleasure is also part of the test –you’re not tested with hardship only you’re tested with pleasure as well-. Some believe that tests are only by the hardship, no the test is also by pleasures to see if you’re thankful or not. So if you’re having difficulties finding what you expect from this dunyah (world) and you don’t and Allaah restricts it for you. Don’t think that means that Allaah hates you, cause that is not how it goes.


وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ

السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ

فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ

اللَّـهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا

شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaiman (Solomon). Sulaiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).” And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew. [2:102]

  • يَقُولَا is  يَقُولَانِ , but without the noon- and that we will learn in Grammer in shaa Allaah.

يَقُولُونَ لَئِن رَّجَعْنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الْأَعَزُّ مِنْهَا الْأَذَلَّ ۚ وَلِلَّـهِ الْعِزَّةُ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ

الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

They (hyprocrites) say: “If we return to Al-Madinah, indeed the more honourable (‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, the chief of hyprocrites at Al-Madinah) will expel therefrom the meaner (i.e. Allah’s Messenger SAW).” But honour, power and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not. [63:8]


أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نُهُوا عَنِ النَّجْوَىٰ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَيَتَنَاجَوْنَ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَمَعْصِيَتِ

الرَّسُولِ وَإِذَا جَاءُوكَ حَيَّوْكَ بِمَا لَمْ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ اللَّـهُ وَيَقُولُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ لَوْلَا يُعَذِّبُنَا اللَّـهُ بِمَا نَقُولُ ۚ

حَسْبُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ يَصْلَوْنَهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

Have you not seen those who were forbidden to hold secret counsels, and afterwards returned to that which they had been forbidden, and conspired together for sin and wrong doing and disobedience to the Messenger (Muhammad SAW ). And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not, and say within themselves: “Why should Allah punish us not for what we say?” Hell will be sufficient for them, they will burn therein, and worst indeed is that destination! [58:8]

 يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَىٰ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ وَيَقُولُونَ حِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا

On the Day they will see the angels, no glad tidings will there be for the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) that day. And they (angels) will say: “All kinds of glad tidings are forbidden for you,” [None will be allowed to enter Paradise except the one who said: La ilaha ill-Allah, “(none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and acted practically on its legal orders and obligations]. [25:22]


إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن

رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَمَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّـهُ بِهَـٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ

إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ

Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it. And as for those who believe, they know that it is the Truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: “What did Allah intend by this parable?” By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only those who are Al-Fasiqun (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah). [2:26]

وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَـٰذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

And they say: “When will be this promise (the torment or the Day of Resurrection), – if you speak the truth?” [10:48]

يَقُولُونَ أَإِنَّا لَمَرْدُودُونَ فِي الْحَافِرَةِ

They say: “Shall we indeed be returned to (our) former state of life? [79:10]

When the ‘Ayn is a Yaa.

Same thing as when the ‘ayn is a waaw, we only deal with a yaa and a kasrah instead of a waaw and a  dhammah.

  • Instead of a Waaw it is going to be a Yaa and instead of a Dhammah it is going to be a Kasrah.
  • Now we will work with a kasrah on the ‘ayn.

ز- ي- د

zayada zaada

  • زَادَ – يَزِيدُ : he/it increased – he/it increases

scale azyidu

Here the process is the same as in  أَقوُلُ . The kasrah is heavy on the yaa and because the letter before it is vacant we can move it to it أَزِيدُ

mudaari' yazeedu

تَزِدنَ is originally  تَزيِدنَ . We first move the kasrah on the Yaa to the Zay (the vacant letter before it) due to heaviness تَزِيدنَ . Now we have two sukoons in a row. We drop the first silent letter if it is a harfu ‘illah with a suitable harakah before it. In this case the two conditions are met here (i.e. the first silent letter is a yaa (i.e. harfu ‘illah) and the letter before it has a kasrah  -a suitable harakah-) so we are able to drop the yaa (the first silent letter) تَزِدنَ

tazyidna tazidna

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 ثُمَّ يَطْمَعُ أَنْ أَزِيدَ

After all that he desires that I should give more; [74:15]

  • أَزِيدُ : I increase

 وَإِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْكُنُوا هَـٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ وَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ

خَطِيئَاتِكُمْ ۚ سَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

And (remember) when it was said to them: “Dwell in this town (Jerusalem) and eat therefrom wherever you wish, and say, ‘(O Allah) forgive our sins’; and enter the gate prostrate (bowing with humility). We shall forgive you your wrong-doings. We shall increase (the reward) for the good-doers.”

  • نَزِيدُ : We increase


وَقَدْ أَضَلُّوا كَثِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا ضَلَالًا

“And indeed they have led many astray. And (O Allah): ‘Grant no increase to the Zalimun (polytheists, wrong-doers, and disbelievers, etc.) save error.” [71:24]

 

رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا

“My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and him who enters my home as a believer, and all the believing men and women. And to the Zalimun (polytheists, wrong-doers, and disbelievers, etc.) grant You no increase but destruction!” [71:28]

  • تَزِيدُ : You increase – Here in تَزِد , the yaa was dropped due to a grammatical reason.

 قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن كُنتُ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّي وَآتَانِي مِنْهُ رَحْمَةً فَمَن يَنصُرُنِي مِنَ اللَّـهِ إِنْ عَصَيْتُهُ ۖ فَمَا

تَزِيدُونَنِي غَيْرَ تَخْسِيرٍ

He said: “O my people! Tell me, if I have a clear proof from my Lord, and there has come to me a Mercy (Prophethood, etc.) from Him, who then can help me against Allah, if I were to disobey Him? Then you increase me not but in loss.  [11:63]

  • تَزِيدُونَ : You all increase


هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الْكَافِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا

مَقْتًا ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُالْكَافِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ إِلَّا خَسَارًا

He it is Who has made you successors generations after generations in the earth, so whosoever disbelieves (in Islamic Monotheism) on him will be his disbelief. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but hatred with their Lord. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but loss. [35:39]


وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۙ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا خَسَارًا

And We send down from the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism and act on it), and it increases the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers) nothing but loss. [17:82]

 وَيَزِيدُ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا هُدًى ۗ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ مَّرَدًّا

And Allah increases in guidance those who walk aright [true believers in the Oneness of Allah who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. And the righteous good deeds that last, are better with your Lord, for reward and better for resort. [19:76]

  • يَزِيدُ : He increases

 وَأَرْسَلْنَاهُ إِلَىٰ مِائَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ

And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more. [37:147]

Extra Benefit:

The beginner will be successful when he focusses on two things Mainlythe definitions and the principles.

Homework >>>

Conjugate the Mudaari’ with the same type of verbs given before.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm ‘Omar Al Amreekiyyah Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

sarf_19.1

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