ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 23

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد


This is the last class of phase One and our next class will be phase Two in shaa Allaah.

Phase Two will be close to phase One in terms of the number of classes, but phase Three will be short (about three classes only).

Conjugations >>>


Is a verb that has a hamzah in one of its original letters.

The Mahmooz is exactly like the Saalim in terms of the conjugations. We don’t have conjugate all of it, but there are a few exceptional cases, and that will be given at the end of phase two in shaa Allaah.

What we should worry about for now is when the hamzah is in the beginning in the Mudaari’ when “speaking about yourself”.

  • The only case where there is something additional, is when we turn it to a Mudaari’


When the Hamzah is in the beginning (The Faa)

The change that appears when turning it into a Mudaari’ is when “speaking about yourself”.

  • When speaking about yourself in the Mudaari’ we add a hamzah at the beginning.

Principle: When there are two أ  in a row and the first has a fathah while the following is silent, we turn it (i.e. the following) into an ا  then we merge them together and write it in this form  آ


When adding the hamzah of the Mudaara’ah we will end up having two hamza’s in a row. The first has a fathah and the following is silent so we are able to turn the second one into an alif. Now that the first is a hamzah and the following is an alif we are able to merge them together and we write it like so آ

  • أَخَذَ: He took
  • آخُذُ : I take
  • It belongs to Chapter One: أَخَذَ – يَأخُذُ


  • أَكَلَ: He ate
  • آكُلُ :I eat
  • It belongs to Chapter One


  • أَفَكَ: He fabricated a lie
  • آفِكُ : I fabricate a lie
  • It belongs to Chapter Two


So far of what we have taken is that the Muda’’af comes in two Chapters which is Chapter One and Two. In Chapter One it is Transitive (Muta’add) and in Chapter Two it is Intransitive (Laazim).

Reminder: The ruling of merging two identical letters is that the first one has to be silent and the second one has to have harakah, and if it is the other way around it is impossible to merge.

Principle: Whenever the Laam is silent we have to Unmerge otherwise Merge.

  • The Laam of the word means the third original letter.

ض- ل- ل


  • ضَلَّ : he went astray
  • This verb is Laazim so it is of Chapter Two ضَلَّ – يَضِلُّ


ع – م- م


  • عَمَّ : he encompassed/included
  • This verb is Muta’’ad so it is of Chapter One عَمَّ – يَعُمُّ
  • This is not عَمَّ that we read in the verse [78:1]: عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ . In the verse عَمَّ is  عَن مَا merged together.

The Maadh

ع – م – م

Maadh 'amma


'amamtu scale

Here the Laam is silent so we have to Unmerge the Meem, we can’t merge it because the first has a harakah and the second is silent.

We do the same to whenever the Laam is silent by unmerging the two identical letters.

'amamnaa - 'amamna


'amama scale

Here we want to make the first identical letter silent to be able to merge those two letters together.

There are two ways to do it, either we Move it to a preceding letter or Remove it. We can’t Move it to the letter before so we Remove it.

Now that the first identical letter is silent and the second has a harakah we are able to merge them together.



'amamat scale

Here the Laam has a harakah so we merge the two identical letters.

We can’t Move the fathah of the first identical letter to the letter before it so we Remove it.

Now that the first identical letter is silent and the second has a fathah we are able to merge those two letters together.


We do the same to whenever the Laam has a harakah by merging the two identical letters.

'ammaa - 'ammoo

The Mudaari’

We apply the same principle to the Mudaari’.

Here we have a verb were the ‘ayn is a dhammah and a verb were the ‘ayn is a kasrah.

When the ‘ayn has a dhammah, that dhammah is eventually going to be moved to the Faa and when it has a kasrah, that kasrah it is eventually going to be moved to the Faa.

  • If you analyze this and you see a dhammah on the faa you will know that it is a transitive verb and if you see a kasrah on the faa then it is a intransitive verb. And this because we end up moving the harakah on the ‘ayn to the Faa (the letter before it.)

ع – م – م

عَمَّ – يَعُمُّ

Here the ‘ayn is given a dhammah, because it is transitive (muta’’ad), and the Muda’’af which is transitive belongs to Chapter One فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ


ض – ل – ل

ضَلَّ – يَضِلُّ

Here the ‘ayn is given a kasrah, because it is intransitive (laazim), and the Muda’’af which is intransitive belongs to Chapter Two فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ

Mudaari' ya'ummu - yadhillu



a'mumu scale

We have a final objective and an initial objective. The final objective is to reach to merging, and the initial objective is to get the first meem silent.

In the initial objective there are two ways of doing it, we either Move or Remove the harakah of the first identical letter.

Here we are able to Move the dhammah of the first identical letter (i.e. the meem) to the letter before it which is the Faa (i.e. the ‘ayn).

a'um mu

Now we reached to our final objective and we are able to merge the two identical letters, because the first letter is silent and the second has harakah which is a dhammah.


When we merge the two identical letters we give it a shaddah to indicate the merging.

The same we do with  أضِلُّ


  • Notice that here we give the Faa a kasrah and not a dhammah.

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

قُلْ إِن ضَلَلْتُ فَإِنَّمَا أَضِلُّ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِي ۖ وَإِنِ اهْتَدَيْتُ فَبِمَا يُوحِي إِلَيَّ رَبِّي ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ قَرِيبٌ

Say: “If (even) I go astray, I shall stray only to my own loss. But if I remain guided, it is because of the Inspiration of my Lord to me. Truly, He is AllHearer, Ever Near (to all things).”  [34:50]


We do the same to the rest of the conjugation in the Mudaari’.

na'ummu nadhillu - ta'mumna tadhlilna

ya'ummu yadhillu ghaaib

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مَن يَضِلُّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

Verily, your Lord! It is He Who knows best who strays from His Way, and He knows best the rightly guided ones. [6:117]


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ ۚ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ وَلَا

يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَن يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللَّـهُ ۚ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّـهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ

مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ

وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَن

تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا ۚ وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا

أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّـهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا ۖ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً

تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُضَارَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلَا شَهِيدٌ ۚ

وَإِن تَفْعَلُوا فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ ۖ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللَّـهُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

O you who believe! When you contract a debt for a fixed period, write it down. Let a scribe write it down in justice between you. Let not the scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him, so let him write. Let him (the debtor) who incurs the liability dictate, and he must fear Allah, his Lord, and diminish not anything of what he owes. But if the debtor is of poor understanding, or weak, or is unable himself to dictate, then let his guardian dictate in justice. And get two witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her. And the witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (for evidence). You should not become weary to write it (your contract), whether it be small or big, for its fixed term, that is more just with Allah; more solid as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves, save when it is a present trade which you carry out on the spot among yourselves, then there is no sin on you if you do not write it down. But take witnesses whenever you make a commercial contract. Let neither scribe nor witness suffer any harm, but if you do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So be afraid of Allah; and Allah teaches you. And Allah is the All-Knower of each and everything. [2:282]

  • تَضِلَّ here in the verse points out to  هِيَ
  • This is the longest verse in the Quraan.


 إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ لِلنَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ

عَلَيْهِم بِوَكِيلٍ

Verily, We have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW) the Book (this Quran) for mankind in truth. So whosoever accepts the guidance, it is only for his ownself, and whosoever goes astray, he goes astray only for his (own) loss. And you (O Muhammad SAW) are not a Wakil (trustee or disposer of affairs, or keeper) over them. [39:41]


 الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي بِنِعْمَتِهِ تَتِمُّ الصَّالِحَاتُ

 Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah


23 -1 23 2 23 3 23 4 23 board 2



5 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 23

  1. Abdul Rahman March 8, 2015 at 10:01 pm Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    I just want to clarify something. Previously, i think sarf one had 55+ classes right? So do these 23 classes cover the content present in all of those 55+ classes? Or are these 23 classes like a summarized version of those 55+ classes with a good amount of omission?

    • zaiba binth hashim March 10, 2015 at 12:44 pm Reply

      Walaikumus Salam Warahamatullahi Wabarakatuh.

      The current classes are concise and direct; it is also much easier to grasp and understand due to the method in which way it is presented to us. No doubt that we are studying the same things here. however, the current classes suffices with what is compulsory and of greater importance of what is necessary for us to know before embarking to level 2 furthermore, the previous classes had a couple of extra benefits to it and it was done in a slower pace.

      So don’t worry if you are stickying to the current classes, they are indeed better and more flexible in understanding and it is sufficient for all thullabul ilm compared to the previous ones.


      Umm Abdillah bint Hashim

  2. Abdul Rahman March 8, 2015 at 11:44 pm Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    Also, are you planning to make the pdfs available for the rest of the classes namely 12,15,16,17,21 & 23?

    • zaiba binth hashim March 10, 2015 at 9:23 am Reply

      Walaiakaumus salam warahamatullahi wabarakatuh.
      PDFs will be up soon Inshallah, due to certain circumstances we delayed on preparing it.
      May Allaah bless you.

      Umm Ab’dillah bint Hashim

  3. Abdul Rahman March 10, 2015 at 8:47 pm Reply

    aameen. Allright baarakallaahu feek
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

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