ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 24

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Introduction >>> 

Verbs are of two types:

  1. Verbs that have no extra letters added to it.

And this is what we have taken in phase one.

  • We took فَعَلَ and its example is: قَتَلَ
  • We took فَعِلَ and its example is: عَلِمَ
  • We took فَعُلَ and its example is: حَسُنَ
  • And these are three letter verbs.
  • The example of the four letter verbs were all the letters are original: دَحرَجَ , وَسوَسَ, زَلزَلَ
  • So far we only took the three letter verbs were all the letters are original.

Reminder: The original letters could vary from three to four.

  1. Verbs that have extra letters added to it.

The three plus verbs >>>

The three plus verbs are the three letter verbs we took with extra letters added to it, to build a verb. Those extra letters could be from 1 to 3 and it is not more than 3.

  • Those extra letters are there to build a verb. The least letters we can build a verb with are three and those three are the main letters.
  • We are speaking about the Maadhee, because it is the origin.

The three plus verbs are of three types:

1st Type: 3 + 1

  • That means that you have 3 original letters and 1 extra letter added.

2nd Type: 3 + 2

  • That means that you have 3 original letters and 2 extra letters added.

3rd Type: 3 + 3

  • That means that you have 3 original letters and 3 extra letters added .
  • There is no 3 + 4

The Chapters:

The 3 + 1 Verbs are Three Chapters.

The 3 + 2 Verbs are Five Chapters.

The 3 + 3 Verbs are Four Chapters.

And that makes 12 Chapters together.

 

The 3 + 1 Verbs are:

3+1 verbs

فَعَلَ plus the أ  makes  أَفعَلَ – This is a Chapter by itself.

فَعَلَ plus the ع  makes  فَعَّلَ (here the ‘ayn is doubled) – This is a Chapter by itself

فَعَلَ plus the ا  makes  فَاعَلَ  – This is a Chapter by itself.

  • These are past verbs.
  • These verbs technically are not called four letters verbs but three letter verbs which is added to.
  • A four letter verb is when you speak about verbs like: دَحرَجَ, زَلزَلَ
  • The least amount of letters we could use to build a verb are three.

Those three letter verbs you can add to them letters for certain reasons …  this will be clarified later.

Example:

af'ala

we added a hamzah at the beginning then we formed a verb which reads أَفعَلَ

Now the verb is no longer three letters but it is four letters  3 + 1 extra.

  • It doesn’t matter if it is فَعَلَ or  فَعِلَ or  فَعُلَ
  • Here we added one extra letter and in some cases we can add two or three – and we can only add up to three.

Here the Faa represents the First original letter

The ‘Ayn represents the Second original letter

The Laam represents the Third original letters

The hamzah is an extra letter added over the original letters.

  • The hamzah is used to build the verb.

Those verbs which have one extra letter added to it for the sake of forming it –  there are only THREE kinds of these verbs.  In beginning Ustaadh told us if there are more than three letters then that is one of three types:

  1. An extra letter according to the scale but not to word weighed
  2. An extra letter due to doubling one of the original letters
  3. One that is not original in the word weighed and not due to doubling – this is limited to 10 letters – سألتُمُونِيهَا

VERBS which have 3 original letters and only one extra –  are only these three أَفعَلَ, فَعَّلَ , فَاعَلَ  – three original letters plus one extra letter- .There are no other verbs in the Arabic language which have three original and one extra except those.

For these verbs we say three letter with one added.

When the people of this knowledge say a four letter verb –  they are usually referring to the verb that has four original letters.

FIRST TYPE  أَفعَلَ – The extra letter that is used to build the verb with is the hamzah, which came in the beginning.

SECOND TYPE فَعَّلَ –  The extra letter is the doubled ‘ayn, which is due to doubling.

  • Basically in this case we are going to double any second original letter (the ‘ayn).

THIRD TYPE فَاعَلَ – The extra letter is the alif, which comes after the Faa.

Each one of those chapters is used for MULTIPLE meanings.

That means that we can bring three letter verbs and build from them to imply different meanings with those root letters for example:

We can bring فَعَلَ (a three letter verb)  and form  أَفعَلَ or فَعَّلَ or  فَاعَلَ with it to imply different meanings from those root letters.

  • This all will come in shaa Allaah, and this part is the exciting part because it involves the meanings more than it does the changes.

General Principles regarding  these chapters:

1. The harakah of the “ع” in both الماضي and المضارع are fixed unlike the 3 letter verbs.

The three letter verbs that we took in phase one. The harakah of the ‘ayn in the Maadhee could be a fathah فَعَلَ, or a kasrah فَعِلَ or a dhammah فَعُلَ and also in the Mudaari’ يَفعُلُ, يَفعَلُ, يَفعِلُ . The harakah of the ‘ayn varies according to the Chapter.

Here it doesn’t vary but it is fixed on one harakah in the Maadhee and the Mudaari’.

Every mudhaari on the scale of Af`ala will be yuf`ilu  it is fixed.

2. The Verbal Nouns “ المصادر” are mentioned here unlike the 3 letter verbs, and this is because المصدر  here is a fixed one unlike the 3 letter verbs.

In phase one the verbal nouns of the verbs weren’t mentioned, because the verbal nouns are varied and not fixed on one particular way of saying/forming it.

Example:

The verbal noun of  قَتَلَ  is قَتْلٌ , which is on the scale of فَعلٌ

  • قَتَلَ : He killed

The verbal noun of سَجَدَ is سُجُودٌ , which is on the scale of فُعُولٌ

  • سَجَدَ : He prostrated.
  • The Masdar here isn’t on the scale of فَعلٌ rather it is on the scale of  فَعُولٌ

Here they don’t say sajd

The verbal noun of طَافَ is   طَوَافٌ , which is on the scale of فَعَالٌ

  • طَافَ : He circumambulated
  • The Masdar here isn’t on the scale of فَعلٌ neither  فُعُولٌ rather it is on the scale of فَعَالٌ

So even though the form of the verb is fixed, but the verbal noun is not fixed.

The forms of the verbal nouns differ in the three letter verbs.

But here it doesn’t it is only one form for each Chapter.

Chapter One >>>

أَفعَلَ – يُفعِلُ – إِفعَالًا

The Maadhee is on the scale of أَفعَلَ and its Mudaari’ is on the scale of   يُفعِلُ and its Masdar is on the scale of إِفعَالًا

NOTICE:

Only in 3 + 1 Verbs the letter of المضارع   takes a ضمة  instead of a فتحة

 

  • In the Mudaari’ the letter of the Mudaara’ah took a dhammah instead of a fathah.
  • In the Maadhee the harakah of the hamzah is always a fathah and the faa is always silent and the harakah of the ‘ayn is always a fathah and the harakah of the laam is always a fathah, they all are fixed.
  • يُفعِلُ is the fixed mudaari’ form for the verb أَفعَلَ and إِفعَالًا is the fixed masdar form for the verb أَفعَلَ
  • That means that every Mudaari’ of every verb on the scale of أَفعَلَ will be يُفعِلُ And every verb on the scale of أَفعَلَ will have its masdar coming on the scale of إِفعَالًا .
  • For the Maadhee the ‘ayn is going to take a fathah and for the Mudaari’ the ‘ayn is going to take a kasrah. There are no three possibilities for the ‘ayn, but only one possibility.
  • There is no such thing as يُفعَلُ or  يُفعُلُ being the Mudaari’ of  أَفعَلَ, but it is ONLY يُفعِلُ . Neither does أَفعَلَcome in another form such as  أَفعِلَ or أَفعُلَ

Example:

أَخرَجَ – يُخرِجُ – إِخرَاجًا

أَخرَجَ  is on the scale of  أَفعَلَ

Then the Mudaari’ will only be on the scale of  يُفعِلُ , so we will say:  يُخرِجُ

And the Masdar will only be on the scale of إِفعَالًا , so we will say:  إخرَاجًا

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَاللَّـهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّن بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ

تَشْكُرُونَ

And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers while you know nothing. And He gave you hearing, sight, and hearts that you might give thanks (to Allah). [16:78]

أَدخَلَ – يُدخِلُ – إِدخَالًا

The Maadhee will only be on the scale of أَفعَلَ , so we will say: أَدخَلَ

Then the Mudaari’ will only be on the scale of  يُفعِلُ , so we will say:  يُدخِلُ

And the Masdar will only be on the scale of إِفعَالًا , so we will say:  إِدخَالًا

أَجلَسَ – يُجلِسُ – إِجلَاسًا

ajlasa

  • There is no way that it will change.
  • Just follow the lead of أَفعَلَ – يُفعِلُ – إِفعَالًا
  • For now look on how the form changes and don’t worry about the meanings.

The three letter verbs that we took in phase one, when we added the letter of the mudaara’ah it became 4 letters.

yaf'alu

And this is how it should be with every verb when changing from a Maadh to a Mudaari’. The Mudaari’ should have the letters of the Maadhee plus the letter of the Mudaari’.

By default when we add the letter of the Mudaari’ to make a Maadh a Mudaari’ it will add a letter.

yufa''alu

فَعَّلَ has four letters and when the yaa is added we will end up having five letters

yufaa'alu

فَاعَلَ has four letters and when the yaa is added we will end up having five letters.

yuf'ilu

But we notice that in أَفعَلَ the  Mudaari’   يُفعِلُ,  doesn’t have all the letters of its Maadh . The hamzah is missing.

Even though the Maadhee has four letters but when we turn it into a Mudaari’ it still is four letters. How come?  It should be five, because if we add the letter of the Mudaari’ to a verb which has four letters the total count should be five?

And this happens only in أَفعَلَ

Why did أَفعَلَ   end up losing the hamzah in the Mudaari’?

It’s because when we speak about ourselves we use the hamzah in the Mudaari’ and when we add that hamzah to this verb we will end up having two hamzah’s

Uaf'ilu

Now it read Uaf’ilu  and that is heavy so they dropped the hamzah of أَفعَلَ

uf'ilu

أُؤمِنُ is supposed to be أُؤَأمِنُ

أُخرِجُ is supposed to be أُؤَخرِجُ

أُدخِلُ is supposed to be  أُؤَدخِلُ

  • أُؤمِنُ : I believe

We are adding the letter of the mudhaari’ to four letters in the Maadhee –  but since it is heavy they dropped it.

This which we applied in the case of the Hamzah will differ from the rest of the cases –the case were there is a Noon or a Taa or a Yaa- so we understand that there is a heaviness when the hamzah is added, but there is no heaviness when the noon   نُؤَفعِلُ or the taa تُؤَفعِلُ or the yaa   يُؤَفعِلُ is added.

The case where we use  a hamzah would be odd –  but they wanted it to be even –  they wanted it to be the same for all cases, so they went ahead and dropped the hamzah for all cases –  they dropped hamzah from all the verbs in the Mudaari’.  This so that they won’t do something different with the hamzah and something different with the rest and that is not nice, so to make it all even they did the same with the rest, so they went along and dropped the hamzah from all the verbs in the Mudaari’.

nuf'ilu tuf'ilu yuf'ilu

Homework >>>

Convert all of the following verbs to the scale of أَفعَلَ

homework class 24

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm ‘Omar Al Amreekiyyah and Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah.

SCREEN SHOTS:

sarf_24.1

sarf_24.2

sarf_24.3

sarf_24.4

sarf_24.5

4 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 24

  1. Abdul Rahman March 11, 2015 at 1:28 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    In the notes below
    أَجلَسَ – يُجلِسُ – إِجلَاسًا,
    Should it not be af’aala —> ajlasa instead of af’eelu –> ajlisu?
    Because its mentioned in the notes that “Neither does أَفعَلَcome in another form such as أَفعِلَ or أَفعُلَ”
    In case you implied the mudhaari’, should it not be “U”f’eelu instead of “A”f’eelu?

    • sarf4sisters March 11, 2015 at 4:27 am Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Yes, that is correct it should be أَفعَلَ —-> أَجلَسَ

      As for Uf’ilu it should have been Af’ala (the Maadh form) + the hamzah of the Mudaari’ =
      U-af’ilu(The Mudaari’).

      Both corrections have been made, wa jazaaka Allaahu khayraa

      – Umm Sufyaan

  2. Abdul Rahman March 11, 2015 at 6:00 am Reply

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
    wa iyyak
    I am sorry i did not follow you. Both corrections?
    Where is the second correction in the notes?

    • sarf4sisters March 11, 2015 at 10:07 am Reply

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      The second one wasn’t directly mentioned by you but I saw an error in that same place that I had to correct..

      It said: Af’ilu instead of Af’ala >>> ( Af’ala (the Maadh form) + the hamzah of the Mudaari’ =
      U-af’ilu(The Mudaari’))

      In shaa Allaah it’s clear now..

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