ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 26

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

 

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All chapters are used to express different meanings along with what the root word gives as a meaning.

  • The root word goes back to a meaning and then we can fashion this meaning with another meaning.
  • We combine another meaning to its meaning by adding a letter or two or three.

Our noble Ustaadh حفظه الله is going to stop at each chapter and speak about some of the meanings which that chapter is used for.

We took one of the objectives as to why chapter one is formed is to imply “making”, and this we called التَّعدِيَةُ

التَّعدِيَةُ is “crossing” over the verb by making it transitive including to it the meaning of “making”.

Chapter of الإِفعَال >>>

أَفعَلَ – يُفعِلُ – إِفعَالًا

The second common meaning the chapter is used for:

الإِزَالَةُ  : The Removal

It is formed to express “removing” from the receiver the meaning which the verb is taken from.

The logical order in grammar of a sentence:

  1. Doer
  2. Verb
  3. Receiver

Example:

ضَرَبَ زَيدٌ عَمرًا           Zaid hit ‘Amr

ضَرَبَ    is the Verb

زَيدٌ         is the Doer

عَمرًا       is the Receiver

  • There is a hitting that took place and the one hitting is Zaid and the one receiving it is ‘Amr.

By default the harakah of the doer is a dhammah at the end and the receiver has a fathah at the end

  • Every doer is given a dhammah and every receiver is given a fathah to show the difference and distinguish between the one who did the act and the one receiving it.

شَكَا means: He complained

أشكى means: He removed the complaining

It originally is شَكَوَ with a waaw, because the Alif at the end was turned into a standing one.

  • If it was a sitting Alif then it means that it is originally a yaa

شَكَا زَيدٌ       Zaid complained.

If we want to express that Zaid “removed” the complaining of someone else, we bring it on the scale of  أَفعَلَ

shakaa af'ala

  • What does it mean to remove once complaint? To solve it (the problem)

Here we have a General Principle: “If the Waaw felt fourth place or more we turn it into a Yaa then into an Alif

ashkaya

Here the Waaw felt fourth place so we are able to turn it into a Yaa.

ashkaa

Now we are able to turn the yaa into an Alif, because it has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah.

  • Because it is turned from a waaw into a yaa we treat it as a yaa.
  • It is a sitting Alif at the end, because it was turned from a Waaw into a Yaa into an Alif

أَشكَى زَيدٌ عَمرًا      Zaid removed ‘Amr’s complaining

As mentioned in a Hadeeth:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الأَحْوَصِ، سَلاَّمُ بْنُ سُلَيْمٍ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ

وَهْبٍ، عَنْ خَبَّابٍ، قَالَ شَكَوْنَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الصَّلاَةَ فِي الرَّمْضَاءِ فَلَمْ يُشْكِنَا

Reference: Saheeh Muslim 619 a [Book 4, Hadeeth 1294]

  • شَكَوْنَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم, فَلَمْ يُشْكِنَا ‏., which means: “We complained to the messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم and he did not remove our complaining.”

شَكَونَا : We complained

  • This is from the verb شَكَا

لَم يُشكِنَا : He didn’t remove our complaining

لم  is used to negate

Grammatical issue: If لم  precedes the verb it drops the last letter if the last letter was a harfu ‘illah.

  • The verb is present tense, but a verb has sometimes things joined to it which changes its time frame and lam is one of them. Lam when it enters the verb it changes its time from the present to the past.

Like in Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  saying:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَظَلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّـهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا

Verily, those who disbelieve and did wrong [by concealing the truth about Prophet Muhammad SAW and his message of true Islamic Monotheism written with them in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], Allah will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to any way, – (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi). [4:168]

lam yushkinaa

Point: Whenever the Mudaari’ has a dhammah on the letter of the mudaari’ and the verb is active then it is formed from a 3+ one verb.

  • This is from the verb أَشكَى , because the Mudaari’ here has a dhammah and the verb is active
  • يُشكِنَا is originally  يُشكِينَا , but due to a grammatical reason the yaa got dropped.
  • With active it is meant that the doer is mentioned
  • يُشكِي means: He removes the complaint.

aqsata

قَسَطَ means: He oppressed

أَقسَطَ means: He removed oppression

  • َقَسَط means the opposite of أَقسَطَ

As mentioned in a hadeeth:

حَدَّثَنَا مَسْعَدَةُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ ، ثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ ، نَا أَبُو ضَمْرَةَ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَامِرٍ الأَسْلَمِيِّ 

عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ :

” سَبْعَةٌ يُظِلُّهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظِلِّ عَرْشِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ : إِمَامٌ يُقْسِطَ ، وَرَجُلٌ يَتَصَدَّقُ بِيَمِينِهِ يُخْفِيهَا مِنْ شِمَالِهِ

، وَرَجُلٌ بَذَلَتْ لَهُ امْرَأَةٌ ذَاتُ حَسَبٍ وَمِيسَمٍ نَفْسَهَا ، فَقَالَ : إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ ، وَرَجُلٌ

ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ فَفَاضَتْ عَيْنَاهُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ، وَرَجُلٌ لَقِيَ رَجُلا ، فَقَالَ : وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأُحِبُّكَ لِلَّهِ ،

فَقَالَ : وَأَنَا أُحِبُّكَ لِلَّهِ ” ، لَمْ يَرْوِ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ إِلا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَامِرٍ

الأَسْلَمِيُّ ، تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ أَبُو ضَمْرَةَ ، وَالْمَشْهُورُ : مِنْ حَدِيثِ حَبِيبِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ ، عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ

عَاصِمٍ ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ

” سَبْعَةٌ يُظِلُّهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظِلِّ عَرْشِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ : إِمَامٌ يُقْسِط

“Seven types of people whom Allaah shades in the shade of His Throne on the Day of Judgment: A legal leader establishin justice…  ”

Where is the doer of yudhillu? Allaah subhaanahu wata’alaa

How do you know? By the dhammah at its end

  • أَجَارَ and  أقسَطَ both mean: He removed the oppression.
  • يُظِلُّ came from أَظَلَّ – A 3+ verb, because the letter of the Mudaari’ has a dhammah and the verb is active.
  • Removing the oppression is establishing justice

Beautiful side benefit to show us the fruit of what we are learning:

An answer that فضيلة الشيخ عبد العزيز بن عبد الله بن باز رحمة الله تعالى   had given to a question.

The Sheikh solved it by clarifying a purely morphological (sarf) issue. Which goes to show you that all of our senior Scholars are well versed in those Arabic sciences.

The Sheikh was asked what seemed to be a contradiction between two verses:

The first verse:

 وَأَمَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ فَكَانُوا لِجَهَنَّمَ حَطَبًا

And as for the Qasitun (disbelievers who deviated from the Right Path), they shall be firewood for Hell, [72:15]

And the second verse:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ

…Verily, Allah loves those who act justly.[5:42]

It seems outwardly to he who has no knowledge of Sarf that this is a contradiction, because in the first verse it says that the Qaasitoona shall be firewood for Hell and in the second one it says that Allaah loves the Muqsiteena.

And some people think that قَاسِطُونَ and  مُقسِطُونَ are the same meaning, but they are wrong.

  • It is something advanced but just to show you how much of a difference the Sarf can make in understanding the verses.

Explanation:

قَسَطَ – يَقسُطُ

  • Which means to oppress

أَقسَطَ – يُقسِطُ

  • Which means being just (removing oppression)

اِسمُ الفَاعِلِ : Is a Noun expressing the one who did the act

  • اسم الفاعل : “The Noun of the one doing the Act”

How to build اسم الفاعل :

The 3 letter verbs

  • We bring it on the scale of فَاعِل

qaasit

The 3+ verbs

  • We bring it to its mudaari’ and exchange the ي of the Mudaari’ with a م

muqsit

ismul faa'il table

So this means that قَاسِط is اسم الفاعل  of  قَسَطَ

And  مُقسِط is اسم الفاعل  of  أَقسَطَ

  • The same root letters are used but both gave the opposite meaning.

If we go back to the two verses we see that القَاسِطُونَ is the exact oppisite of  الـمُقسِطِينَ .

القَاسِطُونَ is taken from the verb قَسَطَ

  • القَاسِطُونَ is the plural of قَاسِط
  • Here it gets the meaning of oppression

And  الـمُقسِطُونَ is taken from the verb أَقسَطَ

  • الـمُقسِطُونَ is the plural of مُقسِط
  • Here it gets the meaning of removing the oppression (being just)

And the person who does not know Arabic even if he is a Daa’iyy, can he give that meaning? No he can’t.

 

 The Fatwaa of the Sheikh رحمه الله تعالى:

Fataawa Sheikh bin baaz (qaasitoona and muqsitoona)

Source: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/mat/329

 

A brief translation:

“I hope that you kindly give an answer about the following: What is the difference between the following noble verses, in verse 15 of Sooratul Jinn, Allaah Exalted is He said: وَأَمَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ فَكَانُوا لِجَهَنَّمَ حَطَبًا  and in verse 8 of Sooratul Mumtahinah: إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ and in verse 24 of Sooratul Maa-idah: فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِين ?

The قِسط which Allaah commanded to judge by is Justice, and the مُقسِطُونَ  are the people of justice in their rulings/judgement and in their families and in those whom Allaah gave them authority over, and the verb أَقسَطَ means he was just in the judgement and paid the right and did not transgress, as for القَاسِط  he is the oppressor the unjust, it is said: قَسَطَ يُقسِطُ قَسطًا فَهُوَ قَاسِطٌ if he transgressed and was unjust, and that is why Allaah said: “As for القَاسِطُونَ they shall be firewood for Hell” he means the oppressing the transgressing the abusing those who cross the limits of Allaah, those are the ones whom Allaah threaten that they are to be the firewoond of Hell, as for المُقسِطُون with the meem is from the verb أَقسَطَ  from the four letter verb (the verb that has four letters) for those are: The people of justice the once who are guided the once who establish justice in their ruling and family and whomever Allaah gave authority over, and that is why Allaah said: “Verily, Allah loves those who act justly ”, meaning he loves the people of Justice and up righteous and equity, and that is why it was recorded in the authentic hadeeth from the messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم   that he said: ….. etc

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

sarf_26.1 sarf_26.2 (1) sarf_26.2 sarf_26.3 sarf_26.4

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