ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 27

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Explanation of the common meanings of  الإفعَال >>>

Of the meanings which أَفعَلَ implies is:

البُلُوغ – الدُّخُول  “The Reaching – The Entering”

Reaching/entering a certain place or time.

A Name of a Place or a Time

  • There is no controdiction between Al Buloogh and Addukhool
  • بَلَغَ- يَبلُغُ – بُلُوغًا : to reach

Example:

We take from the following Names of the times and places the three original letters and build from them a verb on the scale أَفعَلَ

  • This to show that the doer has entered a certain place or time.

Time

Al buloogh examples time

أَصبَحتُ        I entered the morning

أمسينَا           We entered the evening

مَسَاءٌ is originally مَسَاوٌ – This because there is a Principle that says:Whenever the Waaw or the Yaa end after an extra Alif it will be turned into a Hamzah

We know that the waaw is the original letter of the word and not the yaa, so how come do we say أَمسَينَا and not  أَمسَونَا ? This because of the Principle we have learned that says: “If the Waaw fell fourth place or more we turn it into a yaa.”

  • مَسَاءٌ is on the scale of  فَعَالٌ
  • Also with سَمَاءٌ it is originally سَمَاوٌ – Here the waaw was turned into a hamzah because it ended after an extra Alif.

أَضحَى زَيدٌ        Zaid entered the fore noon

Place

Al buloogh examples

أَمصَرَ       He reached Egypt

أَيمَنَ          He reached Yemen

أَهنَدَ         He reached India

الصَيرُورَةُ   “The Becoming”

The doer becoming in the possession of what the verb is built from.

Example:

فَلسٌ : Money

تَـمرٌ : Dates

وَرَقٌ : Leaves

ثَـمَرٌ : Fruits

  • When bringing these words to the scale of أَفعَلَ it implies that the doer is now in the possession of those things.

 

As sayroorah examples

أَفلَسَ زَيدٌ      Zaid got money

أَتمَرَتْ هِندٌ     Hind got dates

  • أَتمَرَتْ we add the taa of femininity because Hind is feminine

أَورَقَ الشَّجَرُ   The trees got leaves

أَثمَرَ البُستَانُ    The garden brought forth its fruits.

الإِصَابَةُ – المُصَادَفَةُ  “The Catching – The Coinciding ”

Finding the receiver upon a certain attribute or quality.

  • Coinciding has two meanings, here it means “things happening at the same time.”
  • Catching – as in like saying: I caught someone doing something.

Example:

From these qualities and attributes we are going to build a verb on the scale of أَفعَلَ, to show that the receiver is found upon that quality or attribute.

الكَذِبُ     Lying

الـجُبنُ     Being cowardly

الإِفحَامُ    Causing one to be speechless

  • Not having any reply – anything to say from a debate or an argument (specifically from that)

الكِبَرُ      Growing in size/state

العَظَمَةُ   Greatness

Al musaadhafah example

أَكذَبتُكَ       I found you to  be a liar

قَاتَلتُ زَيدًا فَمَا أَجبَنتُهُ       I fought with Zaid then I didn’t find him a coward

  • Here the faa is used for proceeding something, like the meaning of: “then” “after that”

نَاظَرتُكَ فَأَفحَمتُكَ         I debated you then I found you speechless.

فَلَمَّا رَأَينَهُ أَكبَرنَهُ       When they found him they found him to be exulted/great in beauty

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِّنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ

عَلَيْهِنَّ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلَّـهِ مَا هَـٰذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ

So when she heard of their accusation, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them; she gave each one of them a knife (to cut the foodstuff with), and she said [(to Yusuf (Joseph)]: “Come out before them.” Then, when they saw him, they exalted him (at his beauty) and (in their astonishment) cut their hands. They said: “How perfect is Allah (or Allah forbid)! No man is this! This is none other than a noble angel!” [12:31]

أَعظَمتُ الأمرَ     I found it to be a great matter

 

المُوَافَقَةُ    

For أَفعَلَ to come for the same meaning as فَعلَ.

Example:

وَحَى- أوحَى

Both mean: He revealed

  • Linguistically: he informed secretly and swiftly

حَبَّ – أَحَبَّ

Both mean: He loved

  • It is a different in dialect

الإِغنَاءُ

That أَفعَلَ gives a meaning that the three letter verb doesn’t give.

  • Originating a new meaning which doesn’t exist in the three letter version of the verb which shares its meaning.
  • أَفعَلَ could come originating a meaning which does not meet with the three version of it.

 

Example:

أَلفَى means: He found

  • It has nothing to do with لَفَى

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا

وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

When it is said to them: “Follow what Allah has sent down.” They say: “Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.” (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided? [2:170]

 

أَلقَى means: He threw/ laid over

  • It has nothing to do with لَقِيَ , because لَقِيَ means: He met – this meaning is not relevant with the meaning of throwing.

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 فَأَلْقَىٰ عَصَاهُ فَإِذَا هِيَ ثُعْبَانٌ مُّبِينٌ

Then [Musa (Moses)] threw his stick and behold! it was a serpent, manifest! [7:107]

أَقسَمَ means: He swore

  • It has nothing to do with قَسَمَ, because قَسَمَ means: He divided

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

لَا أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

I swear by the Day of Resurrection; [75:1]

Extra benefits about Lying:

In a Hadeeth the prophet  صلى الله عليه وسلم  said:

وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏ “‏كفى بالمرء كذبًا أن يحدث بكل

ما سمع‏”‏‏.‏

“ It is enough lying that one says whatever he hears.”

Reference:  كتاب الأمور المنهي عنها  [Book 18, Hadeeth 37]- The Book of the Prohibited actions [Book 18, Hadeeth 1547]

 

And he said صلى الله عليه وسلم :

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظَّنَّ,

فَإِنَّ اَلظَّنَّ أَكْذَبُ اَلْحَدِيثِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ .‏ (1950)‏

صحيح.‏ وهو طرف من حديث رواه البخاري (5143)‏، ومسلم (2563)‏ وسيأتي ‏-أيضا‏- برقم (1520)‏.

“.. .. Suspicion is the worst of lies”

Reference:  English: Book 16, Hadeeth 1531 – Arabic : Book 16, Hadeeth 1488


قَالَ عبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنه: (الكَذِبُ لا يصلح منه جدٌّ ولا هَزَل)

Ibnu Mas’ood said: “Lying does not do any good whether it was done seriously or in a joking manner”

Reference:  رواه أحمد في ((المسند)) (3896) [7123]

 

كَان ابن عباس يقول: (الكذب فجور، والنَّمِيمَة سحرٌ، فمن كذب فقد فجر، ومن نمَّ فقد سحر)

Ibnu ‘Abbaas says: “Lying is a great sinning, .. ..”

Reference:  ((عيون الأخبار)) لابن قتيبة (31/2) [7124]

 


قال عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه: (لأن يضعني الصدق- وقلَّما يضع- أحبُّ إليَّ من أن يرفعني

الكذب، وقلَّما يفعل)

‘Omar ibnul Khattaab said: “For truthfulness to put me down and it barely does it is better to me than lying lifting me up, and it rarely does.”

Reference: أدب الدنيا والدين)) للماوردي (263/1) [7121))

 

قال ابن القيم: (إياك والكذب؛ فإنه يفسد عليك تصور المعلومات على ما هي عليه، ويفسد عليك

تصويرها وتعليمها للناس)

Ibnul Qayyim said: “Be aware of lying for it corrupts for you seeing things how they actually are and it corrupts for you picturing things how they actually are to people.”

Reference:  ((الفوائد)) (ص 135) [7129]

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

 Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah.

SCREEN SHOTS:

Sarf_27.1

sarf_27.2

Sarf_27.3

Sarf_27.4

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