ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 30

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Revision >>>

Chapter two has several meanings and the first one is التَّكثِير which is Multiplicity.

  • Meaning that we show multiplicity in either the act or the doer or the receiver.

Chapter two بَابُ التَّفعِيل >>>

فَعَّلَ – يُفَعِّلُ – تَفعِيلًا

  • Reminder: the Chapters are named after their Masdar.
  • This Chapter is called بَابُ التَّفعِيل

The second meaning:

التَّعدِيةُ

Including the verb the meaning of “Making”

  • This is the same meaning used in Chapter one
  • So far we have two chapters which are used to include the meaning of “making”, which are Chapter one and two.

Therefore crossing over a verb is done by two ways which we have taken so far:

1st: To bring it on the scale of أَفعَلَ

2nd : To bring it on the scale of  فَعَّلَ

Example:

example sentences atta'diyyah ch 2

فَرِحَ اللهُ       Allaah was happy

  • فَرِحَ – يَفرَحُ is of Chapter four, because by default its Mudaari’ is on the scale of يَفعَلُ

حذِرَ الـمُؤمِنُ    The believer was cautious

  • حَذِرَ – يَحذَرُ is of Chapter four, because by default its Mudaari’ is on the scale of يَفعَلُ

وصَلَ القِطَارُ     The train arrived

  • وَصَلَ – يَصِلُ is of Chapter two, because it is a principle to every verb which has the faa as a waaw provided that the laam isn’t one of the throat letters.
  • In the likes of وَصَلَ we drop the waaw in its mudaari’ , because the waaw will end up between its two different enemies’.
  • If the faa was the yaa instead of the waaw belonging to this chapter we would keep the yaa and not drop it.

يَبِسَ الزَّرعُ      The plant turned dry

  • يَبِسَ – يَيبَسُ/ يَيبِسُ is of Chapter four and five, because this is one of the 33 verbs which are exceptional and heard in both ways.

طَالَ الصَّبرُ     The patience was long

  • طَالَ – يَطُولُ , and it is originally طَوَلَ so it is of Chapter one, because this is a principle to every verb which has its ‘ayn as a waaw.

تَمَّ الكِتَابُ      The book was completed

  • تَـمَّ – يَتِمُّ is of Chapter two, because this is a principle to every verb which is mudha’’af and laazim.

سَمِعَ خَالِدٌ    Khalid heard

  • سَمِعَ – يَسمَعُ is of Chapter four, because by default the ‘ayn in its mudaari’ gets a fathah.

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ

Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her (Khaulah bint Tha’labah) that disputes with you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning her husband (Aus bin As-Samit), and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer. [58:1]

Turning these verbs to include the meaning of “making” by bringing it on the scale of  فَعَّلَ

  • When we do that we also have to mention a maf’ool (receiver)

فَرَّحَ اللهُ الـمُؤمِنَ   Allaah made the believer happy.

حَذَّرَ الـمُؤمِنُ مِنَ الشَّرِّ   The believer warned against evil.

  • Making cautious as in warned

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 لَّا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا

أَن تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسَهُ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّـهِ الْمَصِيرُ

Let not the believers take the disbelievers as Auliya (supporters, helpers, etc.) instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His Punishment), and to Allah is the final return.  [3:28]

وَصَّلَ القِطَارُ خَالِدًا   The train dropped Khalid

  • In the sense of it making him reach somewhere

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

And indeed now We have conveyed the Word (this Quran in which is the news of everything to them), in order that they may remember (or receive admonition). [28:51]

يَبَّسَتِ الشَّمسُ الزَّرعَ   The sun made the plant turn dry

  • Here it doesn’t make sense to say that the plant made dry, so here we make الزَّرع (the plant) the receiver and not the doer.
  • Here we add the taa of femininity because ash-shams is feminine.

طَوَّلَ الـمُسلِمُ الصَّبرَ   The Muslim made the patience long (he elongated the patience)

  • Here it doesn’t make sense to say the patience made long, so here we also make الصَّبر the receiver and not the doer.

تَـمَّمَ العَالِمُ الكِتَابَ     The scholar completed the book

  • Here we can’t say the book completed something, so here we also make الكتاب the receiver and not the doer

سَمَّعَ خَالِدٌ صَدِيقَهُ آيَةً    Khalid made his friend listen to a verse

  • سَمِعَ is muta’add , we say سَمِعَ خَالِدٌ الدَّرسَ
  • If we include such a verb to a verb which is already transitive (muta’add), it creates another receiver beside the first and we wil end up with two receivers.
  • Khalid made his friend hear… He made his friend hear what?

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ

Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her (Khaulah bint Tha’labah) that disputes with you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning her husband (Aus bin As-Samit), and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer. [58:1]

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

30 - 1

Tagged:

Ask a question or leave a comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: