ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 32

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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In the last class we spoke of the chapter of فَعَّلَ  (Fa’a’la) meaning بَاب التَّفْعِيْل  because we have agreed that the chapters are named after their   مَصَادِر  (Masaadir – plural of masdar).  We have taken a number of meanings for this chapter and we have ended with  الإخْتِصَارُ حَكَايَةِ الْمُرَكَّبِ    which is ‘abbreviating spoken phrases’ and of the examples that were taken are:

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The fifth and final meaning for which this Chapter is used:

 اَلْإِغْنَاءُ  – It is when the verb which has an extra letter brings a new meaning which its three letter version does not have.

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Here we will brings words on the scale of  فَعَّلَ and usually we take the verb  فَعَّلَ from the three letter verb which has no extra letters and then we double the `Ayn; and doubling the `Ayn will add a meaning over the meaning of the three lettered verb.

So sometimes there is a verb which apparently seems as a verb which has an extra letter added to it but if you relate it to its three letter version you will not see the meanings connecting and you won’t see any relevance in the meaning.  Therefore this means that the new form which has letters added to it brought us a new born meaning which isn’t there in the three letter form.

Example 1:

  •  سَلَّمَ – He saluted     سَلَّمَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ عَلَىَ آدَمَ  

Question: In سَلَّمَ where is the extra letter that is added?

Answer: The second Laam.

If we remove its extra letter we will have the س – ل – م  and the word سَلِمَ means ‘He was safe’.

Question: Which technical term have you learnt which سَلِمَ reminds you of in Sarf?

Answer: سَالم (Saalim), it was called Saalim because it was safe from three things.

So is there any connection between ‘Saluted’ and ‘became safe’?   No!   Therefore building فَعَّلَ (Fa’a’la) from the seen, laam and the meem gave us a new meanings that isn’t related at all with Salima.  If you are asked, “What is the example of the word that has the meaning of Al-Ighna’ in this chapter?” , you say سَلَّمَ (sallama).

Example 2:

  • كلَّمَ  – he conversed.     كلَّمَ اللهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا   

    وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا        

And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you, – and to Musa (Moses) Allah spoke directly. (4:164)

If we undress Kallama from its original letter we will have the kaaf –  the laam –  and the meem.  The three letter verb which could be built from the kaaf the laam and the meem is  كَلَمَ.  The word كَلَمَmeans ‘He injured’ and it is a transitive word.   “Injuring” has nothing to do with “conversing”.

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Al-Ja’d Ibnu Dihr-ham the founder off Al-Jahmiyyah (A deviated sect) tried to play around with this verse, he said: كلَّمَ اللهُ مُوسَى to mean that ‘Allaah injured Musa’. How did Allaah injure Musa? He said that Allaah injected him with wisdom. And from this we learn that when Allaah screens the heart from guidance, it will see misguidance to be guidance and vice-versa.

So he used this to run away from admitting that Allaah speaks. He resembled the wisdom to a lion which dug its claws into Musa, feeding him with the wisdom. Because he said in Arabic:   ‘جَرَّحَهُ بِمَخَالِبِ الْحِكْمَة’   meaning that he struck him with the claws of wisdom.

Basically he claimed that كلَّمَ here is used for التَّكْثِيْر (At-Takseer) [multiplicity]. It would mean then that ‘he injured him a lot’.  How is the answer to this doubt of his?

PRINCIPLE: Every word is to be given its apparent, literal meaning. It is obligatory that each word is given its apparent literal meaning.  

What is apparent from the word كلَّمَ(kallama) is ‘he conversed’ meaning that if you go to any Arab and say:    ‘كَلَّمْتُ الصَّاحِبِي’ , the first and only meaning that would come to his mind would be ‘I conversed with my friend’ his mind will never go to ‘injuring’.

And there is an ARABIC PRINCIPLE which specifies that what is meant is that literal meaning because if the Masdar  which is “Takleem”  (on the scale of Taf`eel)  and the Masdar does not allow the metaphorical meaning. It negates the metaphorical meaning.

 The Masdar of فَعَّلَ  is تَفْعِيل and the Masdar of كلَّمَ is تَكْلِيم. Using the word كلَّمَto mean injured is a metaphorical meaning.  If it was said كلَّمَ اللهُ مُوسَى it could be possible for it to remain according to its apparent meaning which is ‘conversing’ and it is possible that what is meant is the metaphorical meaning, but when the Masdar of the verb كلَّمَ came along,   it specified that what is meant is nothing but that literal apparent meaning.


Example 3:

  •           غَيَّرَ –  He changed  إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ  

   لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ  وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوءًا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَهُ  وَمَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَالٍ 

For each (person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him.They guard him by the Command of Allah. Verily! Allah will not change the good condition of a people as long as they do not change their state of goodness themselves (by committing sins and by being ungrateful and disobedient to Allah). But when Allah wills a people’s punishment, there can be no turning back of it, and they will find besides Him no protector.  (13:11)

If we remove the extra letters from  غَيَّرَ we will have the ghayn and the ya and the ra. (غ – ي – ر) and if we build the three letter from it we will have   غَارَ  so we will have غَارَ – يَغارُ – غَيْرَةً    .

The word غَارَ  means ‘she became jealous’. This word is not just between the husband and the wife, rather Al-Ghayrah is anything that one could be jealous of, especially the Ghayrah in the Deen (Religion) and Al-Ghayrah was attributed to Allaah Azzawajal by the prophet SallalaahuAlayhi Wasallam and this is when you commit a sin then Allaah Subhanahu Wata’Ala is   لَا يَغَار  because you obeyed the devil who commanded to do that sin against the obedience of Allaah Azzawajal.

However,  غَارَ – يَغَار  has nothing to do with غَيَّرَ  (Ghayyara) because غَيَّرَ means ‘he changed’ and  غارَ means ‘he became jealous’ .

Chapter Three  المُفَاعَلَة  >>>

    فَاعَلَ – يُفَاعِلُ – مُفَاعَلَةً  

Here we would take just one meaning.   This chapter is called  بَابُ الـمُفَاعَلَة  . Why? This is because the chapters with extra letters are named after their Masdar.

This chapter is mostly used for:
اَلْمُشَارَكَة ‘Participating’ Meaning that both the doer and the receiver have taken part in the action, even though the act is referred to the doer in the sentence grammatically.

Example 1:

  • قَتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً   means ‘Zayd killed A’mr’.

Question: Who did the sticking to whom?
Answer: Zayd to A’mr.

Question: Does this sentence show that A’mr took part in the action or if he resisted?
Answer: There is nowhere in the sentence which implies that or mentions it or hints it. There is nowhere in this sentence that indicates that it happened after a fight between them.

Question: Now if we build a word from  قَتَلَ  on the scale of   فَاعَلَ where would be the extra letter?
Answer: The alif  between the Fa and the A’yn.
So if we build from the word قَتَلَ  a word on the scale of    فَاعَلَ we would have  قَاتَلَ (Qaatala). We would therefore have  قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً  .

Now we have included to قَتَلَ (Qatala) by bringing it to فَاعَلَ the meaning of ‘Participating’. This means when we say قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً  we mean that ‘Zayd fought with A’mr’. the word قَاتَلَ means ‘A fight to death’. Therefore in the sentence  قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً we understand that Zayd was given some blows just as A’mr was; so the actions is happening both from the doer and the receiver.

Question: How do we know that the action is happening from both the doer and the receiver? What tells us that?
Answer: the extra Alif.

So the one who does not know what the extra alif means will he know how to interpret the Quran because in the Quraan is  قَاتَلَ , جَادَلَ, سَارَعَ, سَابَقَ, حاجَّ, حادَّ  and  وادَّ and all of this is in the Quraan.

That is why Ibnu Hazm said: ‘whoever did not know Arabic and Grammar then verily it is impermissible for him to speak a single word about the religion’ meaning to interpret the Quraan or the Hadeeth or to analyse the verses or the Hadeeth because he does not know what this word does if it was said this way and what that word does if it was said that way. There are many examples that are given to students of knowledge who are of an Arabic tongue who fall into mistakes when interpreting a hadeeth or a verse just because they have not studied Arabic and if this happens with those Arabic speaking students then how would it be with those non Arabic speakers? This does not mean that you cannot convey what you learn rather you can convey what you learnt according to what the scholars have said but for you to bring it from your ownself interpreting the text of the Quraan or the hadeeth or analysing them or deriving a ruling from it to pass a judgment that is based upon the evidence is a RED line without the knowledge of Arabic.

So in the sentence   قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً referring the act to Zayd instead of A’mr gives us a benefit because you might say according to what we have just learnt whether we say   قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً ‘   or   قَاتَلَ عَمْرو زَيْدًا’‘  it’s the same because whether we say this way or that way in both cases both sided have taken part in the action. Isn’t that so? Then what’s the point? Is there a difference? Yes there is a difference because if we say قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً, the one who had the initiative was Zayd meaning that Zayd started it.

In قَاتَلَ عَمْرو زَيْدًا’, the doer عَمْراٌ takes a Dhammah and the receiver زَيْدً takes a Fat-hah. In this sentence A’mr had the initiative.

In  قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً if we analyze it grammatically who is the Faa’il (doer)? If we were to analyze it grammatically we would say the Faa’il (doer) is Zayd because the doer is the word which takes a Dhammah and the receiver takes a Fat-hah. However, Zayd being a Faa’il here only has the benefit of him having the initiative.

قَاتَلَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ الْفُرْسَ  meaning ‘The Muslims fought the Persians’ in this sentence there is no way we would know who won rather we only know that they are fighting to death.
IMPORTANT REMINDER: In the future lessons we will come across another chapter with the meaning of ‘Participating’ so it is very important that one studies this and is thorough with it.


Bring the following words on the scale of  فَاعَلَ (Faa’ala) and try to put them in a sentence.

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~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Abdillah Zaiba Bint Hashim




2 thoughts on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 32

  1. Ummu Yahya Sultana May 6, 2015 at 9:24 am Reply

    assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuhu.

    I am requesting some help please int he verbs for hw.
    Did ustaadh do any conjugation for these verbs? I dont recall he did.
    I just need to be sure about how to conjugate esp the muda’af type of the ch 3 verb here.
    Will one of you sisters please give just the faa’altu conjugation for each of the verbs for hw here? JazaakumuAllaahu khairan.

  2. zaiba binth hashim May 19, 2015 at 10:36 am Reply

    Wa’alaikis Salam warahamatullahi Wabarakatuh dear sister.

    You are right ukti, he hadn’t done the conjugations for each of the verbs however he wanted us to do it and if we had any problem we were allowed to ask in the proceeding class.

    the فعلتُ conjugation for each of the verbs are as follows:

    1. صَرَعَ (Sara’a) – صَارَعْتُ (Saa’ra’tu) with an extra alif after the saad, and a fat-hah on both the saad and the Ra, the ayn would get a sukoon as the ta of the doer was added to the verb.

    2. وَصَلَ (Wasala) – وَاصَلْتُ (Waasaltu) with an extra alif after the waaw, and a fat-hah on both the waaw and the saad. the laam would get a sukoon as the ta of the doer was added to the verb.

    3. رَمَى (Ramaa) – رَامَيْتُ (Raamaytu) with an extra alif after the ra. both the ra and the meem would have a fat-hah. the ya with a sukoon and the ta of the doer was added.

    4. وَدَّ (wadda) – وَادَدْتُ (waadadtu) with an extra alif after the waw. both the waaw and the first daal would have a fat-hah. the second daal would have a sukoon as the ta of the doer is added. (based on the principle -: when the ta of the doer is added then unmerge)

    5. شَقَّ (shaqqa) – شَاقَقْتُ (shaaqaqtu) [the same as the above mentioned]

    Tip: try to place each of the verbs on the scale of فَاعَلْتُ ukti and add the alif. always remember when the dhameer is added to unmerge except in certain cases. And you will have your desired form bi idnillah.

    hope this was helpful.

    wafeekum baarakallah.

    umm abdillah bint hashim

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