ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 33

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

The 3+2 Verb >>>

The 3+2 Verb has Five Chapters:

Chapter one   بَابُ التَّفَعُّل

تَفَعَّلَ – يَتَفَعَّلُ – تَفَعُّلًا

Chapter two  بَابُ التَّفَاعُل

تَفَاعَلَ – يَتَفَاعَلُ – تَفَاعُلًا

Chapter three  بَابُ الاِنفِعَال

اِنفَعَلَ – يَنفَعِلُ – اِنفِعَالًا

Chapter four   بَابُ الاِفتِعَال

اِفتَعَلَ – يَفتَعِلُ – اِفتِعَالًا

Chapter five  بَابُ الاِفعِلَال

اِفعَلَّ – يَفعَلُّ – اِفعِلَالًا

  • It is the Second type of Verbs with extra letters added to it.

Reminder

The 3+1 Verb has Three Chapters:

Chapter one  بَابُ الإِفعَال

أَفعَلَ – يُفعِلُ – إِفعَالًا

Chapter two  بَابُ التَّفعِيل

فَعَّلَ – يُفعِّلُ – تَفعِيلًا

Chapter three  بَابُ الـمُفَاعَلَة

فَاعَلَ – يُفَاعِلُ – مُفَاعَلَةً

We base the following two chapters of the 3+1 verb to the 3+2 verb

fa''ala tafa''ala - faa'ala tafaa'ala

*  When looking to the Maadhee of the 3+1 verb and the 3+2 verb in the chapters mentioned above we see that we simply add the taa in the beginning to the Maadhee of the 3+1 verb and we will end up with the Maadhee of the 3+2 verb.  

tafa''ala and tafaa'alaa

  • Imagine that there is a bond between those two and this because of what will be mentioned in baabut tafa’’ul and baabut tafaa’ul

Why don’t we give the yaa in the Mudaari’ a dhammah as we did in the 3+1 verb?  This because the letter of the Mudaari’ gets a dhammah only when the verb has four letters.

Why does the Masdar has a fathah at the end? Considering its grammatical position in such an order  –If the masdar came after its verb-

Side note:

بَابُ الاِنفِعَال

    it is read like so ‘baabul infi’aal’ and not ‘baabu al infi’aal’, this because it is an alif and not a hamzah. And an alif in the middle of speech drops from pronunciation.

Example:

Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  said:

 اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ

The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder (the people of Makkah requested Prophet Muhammad SAW to show them a miracle, so he showed them the splitting of the moon).   [54:1]

اِقتَرَبَت  here the alif is in the beginning of speech so we pronounce it and read ‘Iqtarabat’

  • The alif is given a kasrah by default except in one case which will be mentioned in shaa Allaah.
  • اِقتَرَبَ is on the scale of  اِفتَعَلَ

و انشَقَّ  here the alif is in the middle of speech so we drop it and read ‘wanshaqqa’. From the waw we jumped to the noon, because the alif is in the middle of speech.

  • اِنشَقَّ is originally اِنشَقَقَ  and it is on the scale of  اِنفَعَلَ . Here the root letters are the Sheen the Qaaf and the Qaaf
  • There is not harakah on aliful wasl, but we give it a harakah when it is in the beginning.
  • Some call it Aliful wasl and some Hamzatul wasl, both are correct.

It doesn’t matter whether it is inf’ala ifta’ala if’alla, because here we are talking about the alif in the beginning, and this is of two cases:

  1. If we start with it we have to pronounce it
  2. If we don’t start with it its existence is just as its inexistence

Chapter One of the 3+2 Verb >>>

بَابُ التَّفَعُّل

تَفَعَّلَ – يَتَفَعَّلُ – تَفَعُّلًا

We relate this chapter to فَعَّلَ

  • There is a relationship of تَفَعَّلَ to  فَعَّلَ

This because one of the meanings of  تَفَعَّلَ  is what we call الـمُطَاوَعَة

First common meaning:

الـمُطَاوَعَة    Complying  with فَعَّلَ

It implies that there was a complying to an act which was done before.

  • Showing compliance with فَعَّلَ

Example:

“I broke the glass.”

This sentence implies that I have done the action to the glass.

Now if I don’t want to speak about what I have done but about what happened to the glass, we say: “The glass broke”

In the first sentence it says that the action is done from that individual, but in the second sentence it says that the object in the first sentence complied with the action.

That is why they say here this is complying with فَعَّلَ

كَسَّرتُ الزُّجَاجَ      I smashed the glass.

  • Here the verb كَسَّرَ gets the meaning of At Taktheer  “Multiplicity”

As to what is apparent the multiplicity is in the action.

If we want to show compliance with that action, we bring that verb on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ

تَكَسَّرَ الزُّجَاجُ      The glass got smashed

What is the scale to use to show compliance with a verb that was on the scale فَعَّلَ تَفَعَّلَ

  • We use the verb on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ to show compliance to an action which is expressed by a verb on the scale of فَعَّلَ

The verb used which is on the scale of   فَعَّلَ  has to be transitive, because tafa’’ala for this meaning is only intransitive.

  • In the first sentence كَسَّرتُ الزُّجَاجَ , the verb is referred to its doer which is ‘ تُ’ and in the second sentence تَكَسَّرَ الزُّجَاجُ   we referred the verb showing compliance to the glass, which was the receiver but now it became the doer

قَطَّعتُ التُّفَاحَةَ      I sliced the apple

To show compliance to the act of slicing and referring the act to the apple itself we bring it on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ

تَقَطَّعَتِ التُّفَاحَةُ     The apple got sliced.

  • Here we add the taa of femininity because at tufaahah is feminine
  • When the silent taa is followed by a silent letter it is given a kasrah.

 ~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS:

class 33 b1

class 33 b2

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