ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 35

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Chapter One of the 3+2 Verb >>>

بَابُ التَّفَعُّل

تَفَعَّلَ – يَتَفَعَّلُ – تَفَعُّلًا

The third meaning which this chapter is used for:

الاِنتِسَابُ Reference / Association  

*Also known as النِّسبَةُ

This to imply that the doer has referred (associated) himself to a certain thing


حَنَفِيٌّ          Someone who is referred to Abu Haneefah

شَافِعِيٌّ         Someone who  is referred to Imaamush Shaafi’iyy

  • Which is on the scale of فَاعِلِيّ

مِصرِيٌّ         Someone who is referred to Egypt

الـحَنِيف       Someone who is referred to the Religion of Islam

عَرَبِيٌّ            Someone who is referred to Arabs

نَصرَانِيّ        Someone who is referred to Christianity

يَهُودِيّ        Someone who is referred to Judaism

*The yaa in the words mentioned above, is the Yaa of Referrence.

We are going to extract from those words the root letters.

root letters hanifiyy etc.

From those root letters we build a verb on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ to imply that the doer has referred himself to a certain thing.

تَـحَنَّفَ زَيدٌ                         Zaid became a Hanafiyy

تَشَفَّعَ الـمَلبَارِيُون                The Malbaries became Shaafi’ees

تَـمَصَّرَ الشَّافِعِيُّ                  As Shaafi’iyy became an Egyption

  • As Shaafi’iyy had moved from Al ‘Iraaq to Misr. And someone could be referred to a certain country if he lives there more than four years.

تَـحَنَّفَ جُورج                    George embraced Islam

تَعَرَّبَ البُوخَارِيُّ                 Al Bukhaariyy became an Arab

  • He became an Arab but he is not originally Arab.
  • The Arabs are of two types: 1- In lineage 2- In affiliation
  • Meaning someone grew up with the Arabs so he became one of them and his last name became theirs and they are called Al mawaaliyy. And this is either because he was a slave of them and they set him free and became one of them or either by following them.
  • Al mawaaliyy is the plural of Al mawlaa
  • Al Ju’fiyyul Bukhaariyy and Al ju’fiyy has an Arab lineage but Al Bukhaariyy isn’t an Arab, his grandfather was not an Arab and he embraced Islam on the hands of those who were Ju’fiyyoon and that is how his ant sisters followed.

تَنَصَّرَ وَرَقَةُ                    Waraqa became a Christian

تَهَوَّدَ                          He became a Jew

The fourth meaning which this chapter is used for:

الطَّلَبُ    Seeking

It implies that the doer seeks the meaning which the verb is taken from


الكِبرُ                 Arrogance/ pride

القُرب               Nearness

اليَقِينُ                Certainty

البَيَانُ                Clarification

العَظَمَة              Greatness

We are going to extract from those words the root letters and build from it a verb on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ .

تَكَبَّرَ زَيدٌ                        Zaid sought pride

  • That is by his limbs – he does what proud and arrogant do.
  • تَكَبَّرَ عَلَيهِ He was arrogant with him

تَقَرَّبَ عَمرٌو إِلَى اللهِ       ‘Amr sought nearness to Allaah

تَيَقَّنَ الشَّاكُ                   The doubtful sought certainty

تَبَيَّنَ الـمُستَشكِلُ           The confused one sought clarification

تَعَظَّمَ الـجَبَّارُ                  The tyrant sought greatness

The fifth meaning which this chapter is used for:

التَّجَنُّبُ  Avoiding

*It is the opposite of seeking which is avoiding.

To know which meaning is meant depends on the context

  • This form تَفَعَّلَ could be used for two opposites “seeking” and “avoiding”.

الإِثمُ                        The sin

الـحِنثُ                   The sin

الـهُجُودُ                    Sleeping at night

We build from those root letters a verb on the scale of تَفَعَّلَ

تَأَثَّمَ زَيدٌ             Zaid avoided sinning

  • This sentence could also come with the meaning of Seeking and mean: Zaid sought sinning
  • What will tell the difference is the context

فَيَتَحَنَّثُ فِيهِ -وَهُوَ التَّعَبُّدُ -اللَّيَالِيَ ذَوَاتِ الْعَدَدِ     

  • يَتَحَنَّث is originally used to express falling into sin and seeking it “At Talab”.

As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَكَانُوا يُصِرُّونَ عَلَى الْحِنثِ الْعَظِيمِ

And were persisting in great sin (joining partners in worship along with Allah, committing murders and other crimes, etc.) [56:46]

So when it apparently gave that meaning Al Imaamu bnu Shihaabiz Zuhriyy when Al Bukhaariyy narrated his narration which is the thirdh hadeeth in Al Bukhari, he added the conjunction phrase  – وهو التَّعَبُّد–  this to clarify that التحنث here isn’t what it seems to be which is “seeking sin” but it is the opposite which is “avoiding sin”. And avoiding sin is a metaphorical meaning for worshipping.

The hadeeth:

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ

عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ أَوَّلُ مَا بُدِئَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنَ الْوَحْىِ الرُّؤْيَا

الصَّالِحَةُ فِي النَّوْمِ، فَكَانَ لاَ يَرَى رُؤْيَا إِلاَّ جَاءَتْ مِثْلَ فَلَقِ الصُّبْحِ، ثُمَّ حُبِّبَ إِلَيْهِ الْخَلاَءُ، وَكَانَ يَخْلُو

بِغَارِ حِرَاءٍ فَيَتَحَنَّثُ فِيهِ ـ وَهُوَ التَّعَبُّدُ ـ اللَّيَالِيَ ذَوَاتِ الْعَدَدِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْزِعَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ، وَيَتَزَوَّدُ لِذَلِكَ ….

The first revelation which the prophet Mohammed sallalaahu ‘layhi wassalam started with is the clear dream in slumber.  So he did not see a dream except that it was just as the break of dawn. Then isolation was made desiring to him. And he used to isolate himself in the cave of hiraa,

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 3 (Book 1, Hadith 3)

تَهَجَّدَ الـمُؤمِنُ          The believer left sleeping at night

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah






One thought on “ETP – Introduction to Arabic Studies – Sarf – Class 35

  1. Abu Shu'ayb May 24, 2015 at 5:24 pm Reply

    As salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullaah
    Can pdf’s be link the classes as I find it easier for me to study, because I can’t always make the classses. I’m using my cell phone apparatus.

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