بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Ustaadh gives salaams: السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
Allah the praises is due to Allaah, we praise Him, we seek His forgiveness and may the peace and blessings and exalted mentions be forwarded to His Slave and Messenger Muhammad, his house of Kin, his Companions and all those who followed him exactly until the day of judgement.
We spoke in the previous class about the story of Iblees and Aadam and how and when, he refused to prostrate himself to Aadam, along with the angels and we mentioned those verses in that regards. Of those verses is in Surah 7 – verses 11 and 12, where Allah mentions this incidence, along with the position that Iblees took with Aadam and it is in His saying:
وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَـٰڪُمۡ ثُمَّ صَوَّرۡنَـٰكُمۡ ثُمَّ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ ٱسۡجُدُواْ لِأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ لَمۡ يَكُن مِّنَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدِينَ
“And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being); then We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Adam”, and they prostrated themselves, except Iblîs (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrated themselves.”
قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسۡجُدَ إِذۡ أَمَرۡتُكَۖ قَالَ أَنَا۟ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡهُ خَلَقۡتَنِى مِن نَّارٍ۬ وَخَلَقۡتَهُ ۥ مِن طِينٍ۬
“(Allâh) said: “What prevented you (O Iblîs) that you did not prostrate yourself, when I commanded you?” Iblîs said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”
Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aala also said in Surah al-Hijr (15), verses 28-33:
وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ إِنِّى خَـٰلِقُۢ بَشَرً۬ا مِّن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬ (٢٨) فَإِذَا سَوَّيۡتُهُ ۥ وَنَفَخۡتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِى فَقَعُواْ لَهُ ۥ سَـٰجِدِينَ (٢٩) فَسَجَدَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ ڪُلُّهُمۡ أَجۡمَعُونَ (٣٠) إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ أَبَىٰٓ أَن يَكُونَ مَعَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدِينَ (٣١) قَالَ يَـٰٓإِبۡلِيسُ مَا لَكَ أَلَّا تَكُونَ مَعَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدِينَ (٣٢) قَالَ لَمۡ أَكُن لِّأَسۡجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ خَلَقۡتَهُ ۥ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬ (٣٣)
“And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man (Adam) from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. (28) “So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him, then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.” (29) So, the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. (30) Except Iblîs (Satan), – he refused to be among the prostrators. (31) (Allâh) said: “O Iblîs (Satan)! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?” (32) [Iblîs (Satan)] said: “I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud.”
And Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’ala said in Surah al-Isra (17), verses 61 and 62:
وَإِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةِ ٱسۡجُدُواْ لِأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ قَالَ ءَأَسۡجُدُ لِمَنۡ خَلَقۡتَ طِينً۬ا (٦١) قَالَ أَرَءَيۡتَكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى ڪَرَّمۡتَ عَلَىَّ لَٮِٕنۡ أَخَّرۡتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ لَأَحۡتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ (٦٢)
“And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves unto Adam.” They prostrated except Iblîs (Satan). He said: “Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?” (61) [Iblîs (Satan)] said: “See this one whom You have honoured above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” (62)”
So it is apparent that Iblees was folded on envy and hatred to Aadam from the beginning – ever since he was fashioned and even before. So Satan refused to prostrate out of pride and arrogance because as he claims, in a false argument which his arrogance and pride led him to otherwise this argument has no space or no room in righteousness, that he was created out of fire and Aadam was created with clay.
So his evil self fooled him into thinking his element is better than Aadam’s and that led him into his disobedience and not prostrating out of boasting against Aadam and looking down at him.
We mentioned Ibnu Katheer’s quotes, where he speaks about this incidence and he mentions that this excuse is worse than the sin itself. Ibnu Katheer also adds that, ontop of iblees’ false rationale, Iblees over his false rationale; he did not look at the fact that Allaah created Aadam out with His own hands and blew into him of souls he created. So this is a very important benefit that we would like to bring to your attention, which Ibnu Katheer mentioned.
Very important benefit, when Ibnu Katheer says that on top of Satan’s false rationale, he overlooked the fact that Aadam was preferred over him by Allaah creating him with His own hands, and blew in him of the sacred souls, which He has created. *see whiteboard print screen below
Q) What sacred?
A) Because it is Allaah’s creation, which became the creation of life.
This benefit is also taken from Surah Saad (38), verse 75 where Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aala says:
قَالَ يَـٰٓإِبۡلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسۡجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقۡتُ بِيَدَىَّۖ أَسۡتَكۡبَرۡتَ أَمۡ كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلۡعَالِينَ
“(Allâh) said: “O Iblîs (Satan)! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud (to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the high exalted?”
So Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aala knew what was in Iblees’ heart and what he was folded on from this pride.
Ibnu Katheer also said in another place: “Allaah brings the attention of the children of Aadam – in this matter – to the high honour of their father Aadam, and shows clearly to them the enmity of their enemy Iblees, and what he was folded on of envy against them and their father, so that they may be warned and not follow his ways” *see whiteboard print screen below
This is a summary of what we explained in the last class.
New Notes >>>
Now, let us talk about the falsehood of Iblees’ analogy.
The falsehood of Iblees’ analogy:
Al-Hasan al-Basree’s (on eof the rightly guided predecessors – one of the followers of the Companions) says: “Iblees rationalised (compared) and he was the first to”* – meaning in contradicting the command. *see whiteboard print screen below
Also ibnu Sereen (one of the great leaders (imams) of the rightly guided predecessors) says: “the first who rationalised (falsely) was Iblees and the son and moon were not worshipped, except by (false) rationales” *see whiteboard print screen below
*of course what Hasan means, he used an analogy in contradicting the command of Allaah. Al-Hasan here, is not talking about the analogy which is used to get to the ruling of something which isn’t specific – to get it to follow the ruling of other things like it – and this is called qiyaas. Qiyaas is of two types:
- Analogy – comparing something to something else or relating something to something else, to give it the same ruling. For example, all intoxicating foods are based upon al-khamar (alcohol) to be given the same ruling of it, for the thing which intoxicates, which was specified in a mentioning (laid down in writing and commanded by Allaah and His Messenger), so all things that do the same (intoxicate) are based on it and related to it. When we say it is based upon it, it means that we make those things, which intoxicate, follow the same ruling as the thing mentioned which intoxicates. Because it intoxicates, it got this ruling and so all other things which do the same, will follow the same ruling because it does the same thing which that impermissible thing does. This is the same thing which it was impermissible for.
Al-Qiyaas is of many types and of many aspects. For example, Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’ala ordered us to pray and to not say ‘uff’ – a displeasing word to our parents. So we based on that and relate to that, every other word which is displeasing to our parents. Because it takes the same ruling, because that word was forbidden to say because of how it displeases the parents and how it is considered of being bad to our parents. So every word that does the same and is considered disrespectful to our parents is given the same ruling based upon this.
So this qiyaas, which we shall mention shortly – where we mention the different aspects of the falsehood of iblees’ analogy. The qiyaas when it is used to get to something which was not specified with a ruling, ya’nee not ruling was mentioned and it was left without a ruling because it was something new that happened after the time of the revelation – after the death of the prophet salallaahu ‘alayhi wasalam – we want to find out the ruling of these things. So those things, no doubt, fall under a rule and a certain principle, which will be given a ruling in the light of it. For example, everything which you ride is based upon which was rode there, in the past – horses and camels. So the rulings which were given to what people use to ride before are given to what people ride now, which is the cars. So when you ride in a car, it is preferred to you to say the same du’aa for when you ride a camel or any other animal, which is the du’aa that says:
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ . وَإِنَّا إِلَى رَبِّنَا لَمُنْقَلِبُونَ
So because this was like that, it followed it in the same ruling – this is called qiyaas, baaraka Allaahu feekum.
So qiyaas, the analogy, if it is used for the purpose of clarifying a ruling of something which was not specified with a ruling by basing it on something which was based upon a ruling. That is a good qiyaas and is one of the sources which is agreed upon. And every odd dispute in that issue is discarded and disregards – not taken in regards. But what the qiyaas of satan was, was the qiyaas that contradicts the ruling in the first place and such a qiyaas is false.
Now we will mention all the points which falsify Iblees’ analogy:
1. It is in contradiction with the command of Allaah, and if >>> the analogy contradicted the text (Qur’aanic texts, Prophetic texts and whatever is taken from them) is a false one. *see whiteboard print screen below Why? Because what is meant by an analogy is to give a ruling to give that which was not specified with a ruling, a ruling the same ruling to that resembling it, which was specified with such. Otherwise, a rationale which contradicts the sacred text, where as it leads to eliminating the command, this is of the ugliest analogies. *see whiteboard print screen below
Q) Can you explain the last line?
A) We said the first answer in falsifying Iblees’ analogy, we said this analogy and rationale is in contradiction of Allaah’s command and we said if the analogy contradicts the sacred text then it is a false one. Why? Because the point of us making an analogy in Sharee’ah Islaamically, it is to give that which was not specified with a ruling because it was originated/innovated after and not available at the time of the prophet to be given such a ruling but it having a ruling does not mean it does not follow or fall under a principle of Islaam which leads it to having a ruling in something which is mentioned in Islaam. As Allaah said in Surah Maryam(19), verse 64, He says:
وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلَّا بِأَمۡرِ رَبِّكَۖ لَهُ ۥ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِينَا وَمَا خَلۡفَنَا وَمَا بَيۡنَ ذَٲلِكَۚ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيًّ۬ا
“We (angels) come not down save by commandment of thy Lord. Unto Him belongeth all that is before us and all that is behind us and all that is between those two, and thy Lord was never forgetful“
Otherwise, rationale that is used in contradiction to the sacred text and acting upon it leads to eliminating the command – ya’nee acting upon, following such an analogy would lead to the elimination, termination, abrogating and discarding of and neglecting Allaah’s command. This is of the ugliest analogies as Shaykh ‘Abdur-Rahman as-Sa’dee says.
2. His saying: “أنا خيرا منه” meaning I am better than him, is enough in pointing out Iblees’ defect, for he has proved by this statement his pride and arrogance, and saying about Allaah that which he had no knowledge of, and what greater defect is there than this.
3. He only used that argument out of stubbornness and pig headedness.
4. The nature of clay (and earth and soil in general), is that it is: calm, gentle, stable, steady and humble and that is why this element, which Aadam was created from served him well in returning to Allaah and repenting to Him and submitting to His commands and asking His forgiveness. And as for the fire, it is by nature, wreckless, unstable, rebellious and restless and that is why this element, which Iblees was created from, got to him and led him into refusing to obey, rebel and deviate. *see whiteboard print screen below May Allah protect us all, aameen.
5. Fire by nature, causes mischief and destroys whatever it touches or whatever it has physical contact with, unlike soil.
6. Soil is a place and source of animals, food and provision of the people’s clothes and adornment, their shelter and fire is not a source to any of these.
7. Earth multiplies whatever it withholds, while fire eats up and leaves nothing.
8. Earth (meaning dirt, sand and soil) is more independent, unlike fire (which always depends on something and is always station on something and proves fire depends on earth because without earth there would not be a place for fire to be stationed upon and this is originally speaking).
9. Fire, even though beneficial, it has to be secluded and trapped otherwise it will get out of control.
10. Allaah mentioned so many verses in the benefits of the earth, which when compared to fire, Allaah mostly mentions it in the sequence of being a punishment to the disbelievers and the disobedient in general. Except once or twice, where Allaah mentioned two benefits of fire:
It reminding of the hellfire
It being a tool of use for the traveller – seeking warmth, his food etc
11. Sand puts out fire and not vice versa.
12. Clay has both water and sand, water which has the life for everything, and sand which we have mentioned previously.
13. The superiority in the origin does not necessarily mean superiority in honour and rank.
14. Aadam was created by Allaah’s own hands.
15. If we were, let us just say, to agree (although we do not) to such a false claim, then we say: “There is nothing wrong in the overcomer honouring the overcome”. – we mean the one who has overcome another in certain qualities. For example, the man is superior to the woman but it does not mean that he does not honour her, he has to honour her and it is obligatory upon him. By him honouring his woman, which has nothing to do with him not obeying Allaah just because he is superior. And this is only IF Iblees’ claim was true, which it is not.
*these points are a summarisation of what all the Scholars (such as Ibn al-Qayyim) have mentioned regarding the falsification of Satan’s analogy.
-End of Dars-
Allaah Knows Best, All praise and thanks are for Him and Salaah and salaam be upon the Messanger of Allaah.
Question & Answers
Q) Ustaadh, does this mean it really matters what we are created from? And does it mean that the man is superior to the jinn?
A) The most honourable to Allaah is the most pious, no matter what he is created from. Who is better than who – this has a lot of discussion.
Q) Then why this argument?
A) This argument is to falsify Iblees’s analogy and it is an extra proof to stress falsifying the evil. This argument of his is based upon a false idea in the first place so we have to falsify it from both ways. Saying it is the command of Allaah is enough no doubt but also the logical aspect of it has to be corrected as well. As it sad to say that some people do not find it enough for the former to be said as they come from environments where they use logic –whether false or correct- to reach to what is correct or wrong and etc. basically what we are trying to say is that we have to falsify it in every way and as long as it is false we falsify it.
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